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Mesoporous TiO2 granules were prepared by spray pyrolysis using nano-sized titania particles which were synthesized by a hydrothermal method, and they were evaluated as the photoanode of dye-sensitized solar cells. To enhance the cell efficiency, nanoparticles within granules were chemically interconnected by adding titanium ethoxide (TEOT) to colloidal spray solution. The resulting titania particles had anatase phase without forming rutile. TiO2 granules obtained showed about 400 nm in size, the specific surface area of 74-77 m2/g, and average pore size of 13-17 nm. The chemical modification of TiO2 granules by adding TEOT initially to the colloidal spray solution was proved to be an effective way in terms of increasing both the light scattering within photoanode and the lifetimes of photo-excited electrons. Consequently, the light-harvesting efficiency of TEOT-modified granules (η=6.72%) was enhanced about 14% higher than primitive nanoparticles.
The effects of aerobic exercise therapy on cardio-respiratory function were investigated in 8 chronic hypertensive female patients(stage I - II with WHO criteria). Their ages ranged from 42 to 59 years old and they had not exercised regulary before doing this exercise training therapy. Subjects participated in a 6 months exercise training with three times per week performing bicycle ergometer exercise for 60 minutes perday. The intensity of exercise training was set to the level of lactate threshold(LT) determined by incremental bicycle ergometer exercise method. The following results were obtained 1. The mean maximal oxygen uptake(V˙O_(2)max) increased significantly from 19.74±4.25 to 23.74±4.88ml/kg/min(p<0.01) after exercise training. 2. The mean resting heart rate decreased from 75±1.5 to 70.3±8.8 beats/min after exercise therapy, but not significant. 3. The mean resting systolic and diastolic blood pressure were decreased significantly from 152±14.1 to 130.5±19.2mmHg and from 102.0±7.8 to 91.5±3.8mmHg respectively, after exercise training. These results indicated that the proscription of a long term aerobic exercise therapy is effective to decrease blood pressure, and to improve the cardiorespiratory functions in hypertensive patients.
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Purpose - Environment-friendly behaviors are diverse and can be motivated by different factors. For example, magnitude of factors affecting recycling behavior could be different from those affecting purchasing of environmentally-friendly products. In this study, the focus is on usage satisfaction of consumers who have purchased environmentally-friendly products. Research design, data, and methodology - For this purpose, data were collected from a total of 345 users of environmentally-friendly products, consisting of 177 users of electric vehicles and 168 users of environmentally-friendly detergents. The study analyzed the relationships among consumer’s innovation propensity, consumer’s environmental concern, and usage satisfaction. In addition, the moderating effect of the product’s innovativeness was examined. Results - The result shows that there is a relationship between consumer’s innovation propensity and consumer’s environmental concern. In particular, it is shown that both consumer’s innovation propensity and consumer’s environmental concern have positive effects on usage satisfaction. Further, there was a moderating effect of the product’s innovativeness. Namely, products rated higher in innovativeness showed a greater effect of consumer’s innovation propensity on usage satisfaction. The degree of the product’s innovativeness also affected the directional paths of the relationships. In the electric vehicle (i.e., high product innovativeness) case, consumer’s innovation propensity had a direct effect on usage satisfaction, as well as an indirect effect through consumer’s environmental concern. In the environmentally-friendly detergent (i.e., low product innovativeness) case, consumer’s innovation propensity only had an indirect effect on usage satisfaction, through consumer’s environmental concern. Conclusions - Theoretical contributions of this study are as follows. Foremost, this is the first study that suggests an existence of a relationship between consumer’s innovation propensity and consumer’s environmental concern. Second, this study showed the positive effect of consumer’s innovation propensity on usage satisfaction of environmentally-friendly products. Third, this study expanded the scope of previous studies by showing the interaction between consumer’s innovation propensity and consumer’s environmental concern. Lastly, this study showed that the effect of these variables on usage satisfaction can differ by the degree of innovativeness of the environmentally-friendly product. The results of the study will have implications for marketers and policy makers in formulating marketing activities and policies.
The puropose of this research is to cmopare the measured values of each group that has different kinds of activity, supply the people with some data for effective sports activity and provide a basis for elevating training effect. The measured values are as follows; total bone density, trabecular bone density, cortical bone density, V˙O_2max, the change of Heart rate & Blood pressure between resting and exercising, METs, Total cholesterol(TC), HDL-c, LDL-c, triglyceride. Sixty two female university student, aged 20-26 yrs, were subjected to activation analysis. Mean and standard deviations(M±SD) in measured values of each groups were computed and the result of comparing maximal & minimum values is as follows. In the total bone density, the measured value of soccer player group was 398.06±53.88mg/ccm^-1 and of ballet dancer was 350.17±30.14mg/ccm^-1. In the cortical bone density, the measured valve of student group majoring in P.E. was 199.37±37.43mg/ccm^-1 and of ballet dancer was 163.32±32.44mg/ccm. In case of V˙O_2max, the value of ballet dancer was maximal as 41.84±27.05ml/kg. min, whereas the value of common university student was 32.50±1.92~33.02±4.03ml/kg.min Maximal work capacity makes difference between basketball player and ballet dancers as 145.55±20.75watts, 69.22±25.02watts, respectively. In case of METs, the value of basketabll player group was 11.81±5.30METs but the value of common person was 9.24±0.55METs. The total cholesterol concentration of all 62 students was 171.1~188.9mg.dl,and the triglyceride concentration was 55.7~83.8gm.dl. The value of HDL-c concentration of exercise group was presented to higher than common peoples as 77.7~98.9mg.dl, but LDL-c concentration was lower the measured value of peak bone mass and maximal oxygen consumption can be associated with training method, the age of beginning physical activity and the load of physical activity. The results of all measured value above were significantly lower than other research data, especially, the value of trabecular bone density and peak VO_2. Therefore, it is suggested tat change of training method was need for higher muscle power and endurance.
Constructing attractive bundle offers depends on more than an understanding of the distribution of consumer preferences. Consumers are also sensitive to the framing of price information in a bundle offer. In classical economic theory, consumers' utility should not change as long as the total price paid stays same. However, even when total prices are identical, consumers' preferences toward a bundle product could be different depending on the format of price presentation and the locus of price discount. A weighted additive model predicts that the impact of a price discount on the overall evaluation of the bundle will be greater when the discount is assigned to the more important product in the bundle(Yadav 1995). Meanwhile, a reference dependent model asserts that it is better to assign a price discount to a tie-in component that has a negative valuation at its current offer price than to a focal product that has a positive valuation at its current offer price(Janiszewski and Cunha 2004). This paper has expanded previous research regarding price discount presentation format, investigating the reasons for mixed results of prior research and presenting new mechanisms for price discount framing effect. Prior research has hypothesized that bundling is used to sell a tie-in component with an offer price above the consumer's reference price plus a focal product of the same offer price with reference price(e.g., Janiszewski and Cunha 2004). However, this study suggests that bundling strategy can be used for increasing product's attractiveness through the synergy between components even when offer prices of bundle components are the same with reference prices. In this context,this study employed various realistic bundle sets with same price between offer price and reference price in the experiment. Hamilton and Srivastava(2008) demonstrated that when evaluating different partitions of the same total price, consumers prefer partitions in which the price of the high-benefit component is higher. This study determined that their mechanism can be applied to price discount presentation formats. This study hypothesized that price discount framing effect depends not on the negative perception of tie-in component with offer price above reference price but rather on the consumers' perceived consumption benefit in bundle product. This research also hypothesized that preference for lowbenefit discount mechanism is that perceived consumption benefit reduces price sensitivity. Furthermore,this study investigated how consumers' concern for quality in a price discount--a factor not considered in previous research--influences price discount framing. Yadav(1995)'s experiment used only one magazine bundle of relatively low quality uncertainty and could not show the influence of perceived uncertainty of quality. This study assumed that as perceived uncertainty of quality increases, the price sensitivity mechanism for assigning the discount to low-benefit will increase. Further, this research investigated the moderating effect of uncertainty of quality in price discount framing. The results of the experiment showed that when evaluating different partitions of the same total price and the same amount of discounts, the partition that discounts in the price of low benefit component is preferred to the partition that decreases the price of high benefit component. This implies that price discount framing effect depends on the perceived consumption benefit. The results also demonstrated that consumers are more price sensitive to low benefit component and less price sensitive to high benefit component. Furthermore, the results showed that the influence of price discount presentation format on the evaluation of bundle product varies with the perceived uncertainty of quality in high consumption benefit. As perceived uncertainty of quality gradually increases, the preference for discounts in the price of low consumption benefit decreases. Besides, the results de... 묶음제품의 매력도를 증가시키기 위해 소비자들이 번들 오퍼에서의 가격 제시 프레이밍(framing)에민감하다는 것을 이해할 필요가 있다. 동일 가격을 할인하더라도 묶음제품 요소 중 어느 요소에 가격할인을 표시하느냐에 따라 소비자의 묶음제품에 대한 지각된 매력도를 바꿀 수 있기 때문이다. 선행연구는 더 중요한 제품 요소에 할인이 할당될 때 효용이 증가한다는 주장과 덜 중요한 제품 요소에할인을 위치시키는 것이 선호를 증가시킨다는 주장을 동시에 보이고 있다. 본 연구는 선행연구를 보완하여 묶음제품 가격 할인 제시 프레이밍효과에 대한 새로운 기제를 제시한다. 그리고 선행연구에서 믹스드(mixed)된 결론을 보이는 이유를 분석하여 밝힌다. 본 연구는 현실적인 번들링 전략 사용 상황을 고려하였으며, 좀 더 리얼한 번들링 세팅을 이용하여 가격 할인 제시 프레이밍 효과를 조사하고, 순수번들 및 혼합번들을 포함한 다양한 묶음제품을 이용하여 품질 불확실성 지각에 따른 조절효과를 분석하였다. 본 연구 결과, 소비자들은 높은 소비 혜택(high consumption benefit)보다 낮은 소비 혜택(low consumption benefit) 요소에 가격 할인을 위치시키는 것을 더 선호하였다. 가격민감성(price sensitivity)이 주요혜택에서는 낮고, 낮은 혜택에서는 높기 때문에 동일 가격이 할인될 때 낮은 혜택을 할인한 매장 제품에 대한 평가가 더 높게 나타났다. 또한 구매 시점에서 품질의 불확실성(perceived uncertainty of product quality)이 높을수록 가격민감성이 혜택 지각에 가지는 효과가 더 커지고 있었다. 본 연구의공헌은 소비 혜택 지각 및 가격민감성 기제와 지각된 품질 불확실성의 조절효과를 통해 선행연구를통합하고, 가격 제시 형태의 프레이밍 효과를 명확하게 설명하였다는 점이다