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We investigated the impact of watermelon grafted onto Cucumber Gren Mottle Mosaic Virus(CGMMV)-resistant transgenic watermelon rotstock on insects as non-target organisms in a greenhouse in2005. We quantitatively collected insect assemblages living on leaves and flowers, and we used sticky traps to(Aphis gossypii Glover) on watermelon leaves and western flower thrip (Frankliniella occidentalisTrybom) onwatermelon male flowers, betwen CGMMV-resistant transgenic watermelon (TR) and non-transgenic water-melon (nTR). Non-parametric multidimensional scaling (NMS) ordination verified that insect assemblages onleaves and sticky traps were different between TR and nTR (P < 0.05). The insect assemblages on male flowerswere not statistically significant. Multi-response permutation procedures proofed our esults from NMS results (P> on leaves and sticky traps, but watermelon male flowers do not show an adverse effect. Further research isrequired to assess the ffect of TR on the aphid and western flower thrip. Life table experiments might supportthe specific reason for the adverse effects from leaf assemblages. Assessment of non-target impacts is anessential part of the risk assessment of non-target insects for the impact of transgenic organisms.
We analyzed the current research trends of living modified organisms (LMO) by questionnaires in the interest of making biosaftey laws and policies in Korea. We executed a pre-survey at the Crop Functional Genomics 2004 conference and obtained LMO research information from 423 LMO research organizations, including 32 national research institutes, 314 universities, and 77 industries. We found that the total 59 kinds of hosts including 26 kinds of plants, 15 kinds of animals, and 18 kinds of microbes were used for LMO research and E. coli was the most common host. The risk of the most experimental hosts was below a biosafety level of 1 (73.8%) and 2 (25.9%). LMO development use purpose was implemented in various developmental uses: 51.3% in test and research use, 19% in health and medical use, and 12.9% in agriculture use. The experiment product, waste product, and products of host for LMO development were 327.2, 223.6, and 13.5 in number of plants; 280.6, 52.4, and 8.7 in number of animals; and 8.3 x 1011CFU, 7.7 x 1011CFU, and 6.5 x 1011CFU in microbes in 2004. The survey results about how to possess the LMO were very unreliable, because only 10.6% of the researchers returned the questionnaires. Consequently, we strongly suggest the scientific organizations as well as scientists should have more interests in biosafety of LMO research and an LMO biosafety management system should be developed for Korea’s future biotechnology.
The environmental risks of cucumber mosaic virus resistant transgenic chili peppers with the CMVP0-CP gene on non-target organisms in the agroecosystem environments was evaluated during the periods of the chili pepper growing season (June 19, July 30, August 31) in 2007. Arthropods assemblages leaves and flowers of chili peppers were quantitatively collected by using an insect vacuum collector to compare the arthropod community structures between non-transgenic chili peppers (nTR, P 915) and mosaic virus resistant transgenic chili peppers (TR, CMV-cp, line 7). There was no statistical difference in the arthropod community structure between the two types of crops, nTR and TR, at the same season, although the species richness and Shannon’s index were somewhat different among seasons, indicating no effects of genetically modified peppers on the arthropod community. However, further studies were required to conclude more concretely for the potential environmental risk of the transgenic chili pepper of CMV-cp.
Moths were collected using a 22W UV black light trap in June through September in 2005 and May, June, August and September in 2006. The study sites were Namsan (Mt. Nam), Jirisan (Mt. Jiri), Woraksan (Mt. Worak) which are part of the Korean National Long Term Ecological Research (KNLTER). There were two common forest communities, Quercus mongolica and Pinus densiflora. The purpose of this study was to compare species diversity of the major plant feeding Lepidoptera in the two forest types at the regional KNLTER sites. We collected a total of 435 species from the KLTER sites in 2005 and 2006. Abundance of moths was highest at Woraksan (Mt. Worak) followed by Jirisan (Mt. Jiri). The Namsan (Mt. Nam) site had the lowest, with five families (Arctiidae, Geometridae, Noctuidae, Notodontidae, and Pyralidae). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed statistically significant differences at sampling date in species abundance as a response variable and at site in species richness as another response variable. Although we expected a distinct cluster with the forest type at each study site, one of ordination analyses, nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMS), showed distinct clusters with the moth assemblages at each site only but NMS did not show any distinct cluster with the different forest types at each site as we expected.
We compared the composition of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) to assess the microbial community structure in the soil and rhizosphere community of non-transgenic watermelons and transgenic watermelons in Miryang farmlands in Korea during the spring and summer of 2005. The PLFA data were seasonally examined for the number of PLFA to determine whether there is any difference in the microbial community in soils from two types of watermelons, nontransgenic and transgenic. We identified 78 PLFAs from the rhizosphere samples of the two types of watermelons. We found eight different PLFAs for the type of plants and sixteen PLFAs for the interaction of plant type and season. The PLFA data were analyzed by analysis of variance separated by plant type (PB0.0085), season (PB0.0154), and the plant typeseason interaction (PB0.1595). Non-parametric multidimensional scaling (NMS)showed a small apparent difference but multi-response permutation procedures (MRPP) confirmed that there was no difference in microbial community structure for soils of both plant types. Conclusively, there was no significant adverse effect of transgenic watermelon on bacterial and fungal relative abundance as measured by PLFA. We could reject our hypothesis that there might be an adverse effect from transgenic watermelon with our statistical results. Therefore, we can suggest the use of this PLFA methodology to examine the adverse effects of transgenic plants on the soil microbial community.