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Until recently the research interests concerning Korean women's status and role were mainly confined to the area of the institutional aspects and reproductive role of the family. This trend is particularly dominant in the historical study of Korean women's lives in the traditional society. The basic assumption of their approach was based upon the general theory of the sexual division of labor in that women labor is only related to the domestic sphere of the family and kinship system, serving the biological and the family reproduction. Under this assumption, women's productive labor is regarded to serve only the family subsistance, unrelated the social labor so that the issue for women's liberation has been women's participation in employment of the public wage sector. However, the reality of women's continued subordination in the family and deepening sex discrimination in employment and labor relations, in spite of increasing labor participation, has led us to realize that women's entry into the socialized wage work alone is not a sufficient condition for liberating women. Consequently there has been theoretical efforts to explain the relation between the traditional patriachy and the modern capitalistic system, arousing analytical interests into the total structure of women's labor carried out in production and reproduction. There is a need to understand as to how the double role is imposed on women while their status is continuously subordinated and discriminated through the ideology and institution of the patriarchal family under the capitalistic industrialization, particularly of the third world society. In line with this general concern, this paper focuses on women labor in the ? traditional Korean society, with particular purpose to explore into the labor patterns of cotton production carried out as women's home industry. Under the feudalistic mode of production in the Choson Dynasty the family was the basic unit of economic production with obligation to pay taxes in kind, such as rice, cotton and other goods, and to serve the military and labor duties. Women's participation in the family production, particularly cotton production in picking, spinning and weaving carried out exclusively by women should not be regarded merely for the domestic use. Their production went beyond the private needs under the feudalistic demands and exploitation so that the history of cotton industry is viewed from the national economy of the Choson Dynasty. Namely, women's labor production is viewed in terms of its significance in relation to the exploitative economy with intention to counter the assumption that women's labor in traditional society is only for the family subsistance. However, this study is only a preliminary step toward exploring into the history of Korean women's labor in the precapitalistic society with a focus on cotton production which may lead us to understand the changing aspects of women's labor from the precapitalistic society to the industrial labor in the capitalistic society.
This article aims to provide a new way to understand the theological foundation of John Calvin's interpretation of the usury laws in the Mosaic Law. His interpretation of the usury laws was radically different from that of Scholastics and even other Reformers of his days. His challenge against the church tradition that read the usury laws literally provided a significant turning-point to the development of the capitalism of Western Europe. Scholars have researched to find the reason why he was different from others on this issue. Recent studies focused on the idea of equity as his ethical principle in his understanding of usury. Not satisfied with this result, I tried to find a deeper reason and found the more basic theological ground for his revolutionary idea on usury: his idea of "the third use of the Law." This idea means that Mosaic laws, though given for the recognition of our sinfulness, can be used as a moral guide for believers. Calvin argues that the final goal of the Old Testament laws is to love God and neighbor. This idea made him believe that the usury laws could play a positive role in the life of believers. For Calvin, if usury could be used to practice the love of the poor in the 16th century context which was far different from that of the Mosaic Law, this usury should be permitted. Using this interpretive method, Calvin concludes that the usury laws do not mean unserved prohibition but the practice of love, especially for the poor. For this reason, Calvin permitted some kinds of usury practiced in marketplaces, because he experienced positive roles of usury that helped the poor to make profit and relieve from poverty. But he strictly prohibited usury charged to the lending for the life of the poor. The idea of "the third use of the Law" opened Calvin's eyes to see the other aspect of usury that was condemned by the Roman Catholic church. This argument will help Calvin researchers to know a reason why Calvin interpreted the usury laws of the Old Testament in such a revolutionary way. 칼빈은 중세 스콜라주의자들이나 루터와 같은 이전 신학자들과 달리 상업적인 이자를 허용한 첫 번째 기독교 신학자로서 서구 사회에 적잖은 변화를 가져왔다. 최근 연구들은 그가 왜 이자를 허용했는지를 분석하고 있는데, 논자는 구약 율법에 대한 칼빈 자신의 이해에 근거한 성경해석의 결과였다는 점을 새롭게 제시한다. 칼빈은 자신의 ‘율법의 제3용법' 개념으로 이자금지법을 해석하면서 율법의 궁극적 목표인 사랑을 실천할 수 있다면 이자를 금지한 율법 규정을 문자적으로 지키지 않아도 된다고 주장하며 문자적 준수보다 율법에 담긴 하나님의 뜻을 성도들의 일상에 적용하는 것이 율법의 진정한 정신이라고 강조했다. 칼빈은 자신이 살던 16세기 제네바에서 이자를 주고받는 경제 활동을 통해 산업을 발전시켜 긴박한 가난 문제를 해결할 수 있다면, 이것이 오히려 이자금지법에 담긴 하나님의 의도를 더 정확하게 구현하는 것이라고 보았다. 하나님은 이 법을 통해 가난한 자를 보호하기 원했기 때문이다. 다만 그는 가난한 자들의 생계를 위한 대부에는 이자를 부과해서는 안 된다는 단서조항을 붙였다. 이와 같은 칼빈의 율법 해석을 통해서 우리는 구약의 율법이 오늘 우리의 일상생활과 무관한 것이 아니라 여전히 하나님의 뜻을 전달하고 있음을 발견한다. 율법이 주어졌던 구약 시대와 많이 달라진 오늘날에 율법을 적용하기 위해서는 율법의 본래 정신을 현실에 맞도록 창조적이고 탄력적으로 적용해야 함을 칼빈을 통해 배울 수 있다.
Background: The greatest threats to the lives of cancer patients consist of both complications due to metastasis and the recurrence of original cancer. However, the existing forms of chemotherapy do not prevent these adverse events adequately because they suppress the patients' immune systems. A new methodology is required. Aim: To provide further validation for cancer immunotherapy (involving the use of traditional oriental herbal medicine). Method: Related articles, in both Korean and English were reviewed. Results: Cancer immunotherapy involving the use of traditional oriental herbal medicine can create inhospitable conditions for cancer cells and strengthen patients' immunological functioning. These effects are a demonstration of the principles of "strengthening healthy qi (扶正)" and "eliminating pathogens (祛邪)". As a result, immunotherapy protects against metastasis and original cancer recurrence by preventing the growth of cancer cells. This is very similar to the concept of a cancer dormancy therapy. Conclusion: It is strongly urged by the authors that more advanced studies be carried out on this promising therapy in the future in order to improve patients' quality of life and increase their survival time.
In recent years, the number of women job holders is rapidly increasing among Korean Women and particularly there is an increasing desire for occupational activities among college graduates, whether married or not. Therefore, there is an urgent need for understanding the problems related to job opportunities, employment policies and work conditions concerning women, and also women's aspirations and attitudes toward occupation. In view of such needs, this study attempts to survey the occupations college graduates are penetrating, the discriminations faced in employment and promotion, and their attitudes toward work. In grasping the occupational structure for college graduates, this study relied on various reports offered by government and private agencies. For the attitude study, a sample of 1,528 female students was drawn from the graduating class of 1971 at an woman's university in Seoul, taking into consideration the fields of major as the proportion being purposively determined. In order to analyze the problems of sex discrimination regarding employment, promotion, salary scale and also of human relations at work, this study focuses on banking organizations as a case. Ten banks in Seoul, had been approached but seven responded and gave cooperation. The reason for selecting the bank as a case study is that working at the bank is most highly desired by female college graduates and also a large number of women are employed. The bank provides not only better physical conditions of work but also better salary than most of other private and governmental organizations. However, the bank applies the discriminating policies against women in all aspects of the employment, and it has many problems representative of women employee in general. there fore, the problems discovered among the bank workers, should provide sufficient data for examining the basic factors than have to be accounted in understanding underlying problems of women's occupational activities.