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In order to investigate the variation of meteological factors induced by construction of dam, the prediction model, WQRRS, is used. As a result, the effect of Dam construction showed that the amount of evaporation increases because of broad water surface area. Therefore, nighttime relative humidity is raised, and annual foggy days are increased more than 7days and sunshine hours are decreased.
In order to clarify the impact of wildfire and its thermal forcing on atmospheric wind and temperature patterns, several numerical experiments were carried out using three dimensional atmospheric dynamic model WRF with wildfire parametrization module SFIRE. Since wind can accelerate fire spread speed, the moving speed of fireline is faster than its initial values, and the fireline tends to move the northeast, because of the wind direction and absolute vorticity conservation law associated with driving force induced by terrain. In comparison with non-fire case, the hydraulic jump that often occurs over downwind side of mountain became weak due to huge heat flux originated by surface wildfire and wind pattern over downwind side of mountain tends to vary asymmetrically with time passing. Therefore temporal variation of wind pattern should be catched to prevent the risk of widfire.
Turbulence greatly influence on atmospheric flow field. In the atmosphere, turbulence is represented as turbulent diffusion coefficients. To estimate turbulent diffusion coefficients in previous studies, it has been used constants or 2-level method which divides surface layer and Ekman layer. In this study, it was introduced Smagorinsky method which estimates turbulent diffusion coefficient not to divide the layer but to continue in vertical direcrtion. We simulated 3-D flow model and TKE equation applied turbulent diffusion coefficients using two methods, respectively. Then we showed the values of TKE and the condition of each term to TKE. The results of Smagorinsky method were reasonable. But the results of 2-level method were not reasonable. Therefor, it had better use Smagorinsky method to estimate turbulent diffusion coefficients. We are expected that if it is developed better TKE equation and model with study of computational method in several turbulent diffusion coefficients for reasonably turbulent diffusion, we will able to predict precise wind field and movements of air pollutants.
The purpose of this study is designed to estimate the air quality of subway stations that have the underground platforms in Pusan Metropolitan City, from September to November 2000, over seventimes. The subjects include Yonsan-dong station, Somyon station, Pusan station, Nampo-dong station, and Tushil station. The samplings were conducted at three points of each station, i.e. gates, ticket gates, and platforms. The major materials for analysis were CO, NO, NO2, and O3. The experiment was conducted at 7:00 pm with KIMOTO HS-7 Handy sampler and Tedlar Bag of SKC INC(U.S.A). In order to more fully understand station environments, we also measured temperature at each point. The results showed that O3 average concentration at Yonsan-dong station was higher than others with 38~51 ppb. The average concentration of NO was high at ticket gate and platform at Somyon station(119 ppb, 122 ppb), Nampo-dong station(102 ppb, 100 ppb). These results show that the air pollution of stations with underground shopping malls was higher than others. At Somyon station having a junction station, NO and NO2 concentration level of platform-2(noncrowded) was higher than platform-1(crowded). This is most likely due to the accumulation of air pollutants and inadequate ventilation systems.
The aerodynamic resistance(Ra) to vertical transfer in the surface boundary layer can be formulated in terms of the friction velocity, height of observation, vertical heat flux and surface roughness. Unlike previous studies which focused on the role of Rc, present study perform additional tests using a variety of Ra formulae. Several Ra formulations available in the literature, suitable for unstable conditions, were tested for their influence on the dry deposition velocity. The canopy resistance(Rc) determines the shape of the diurnal pattern, while a small amplitude diurnal cycle in Vd was attributed to the aerodynamic resistance. The aerodynamic resistance is the major contributor to the formation of spikes in nighttime and Ra is relatively important at night because the canopy resistance is smaller. All formulations show similar diurnal cycle and yield good agreement with the observations. Although present Vd formulations are suitable for numerical air quality models, the research must continue for further improvements in resistance parametrizations.