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Structural qualification plan (SQP) for aerospace vehicle is based on material certification methodology, which must be approved by certification authority. It is internationally required to use of statistically based material allowables to design aerospace vehicles with aerospace materials. In order to comply with this regulation, it is necessary to establish relatively large amount of database, which increases test costs and time. Recently NASA/FAA develop the new methodology which results in cost, time, and risk reduction, and satisfies the regulation at the same time. This paper summarizes the certification methodology of materials system as a part of structural qualification plan (SQP) of aerospace vehicles and also thermal management of the vehicle system, like thermal protection materials system and thermally conductive material system. Materials design allowable was determined using this method for a carbon/epoxy composite material.
기존의 퍼지회귀모형은 모수의 퍼지성질에 의해 관측된 종속변수의 변동을 설명하는 방법이다. 그러나 일반적으로 종속변수에 영향을 미치는 모든 독립변수를 모형화하는 일은 불가능하므로 종속변수가 삼각퍼지숫자로 관측된 경우 모형화되지 않은 변수들의 영향을 랜덤 오차항으로 두는 퍼지확률회귀모형을 소개하고 이에 따른 모수추정법을 다룬다. 이 방법은 통계적 회귀모형의 일반화로 간주할 수 있다.
In this paper, a near net shape technology using superplasticity and diffusion bonding characteristics was presented for application to various components of aircraft and missiles. Due to these special characteristics of some aerospace alloys, it is possible to produce complex components to shape very near final dimension with enhanced design freedom, reduced material usage, and overall saving of weight and cost. The high pressure vessel for a space launcher was fabricated with Ti-6Al-4V alloy by superplastic forming and diffusion bonding process and the failure characteristics are compared with conventionally fabricated vessel spin formed and TIG welded. The structural integrity of the superplastic forming and diffusion bonding process was successfully demonstrated.
Purpose: Korea is expected to enter an aged society in 2018 and then a super-aged society in early 2025. The country's aging is progressing faster than any other country in the world. However, the foundation of the elderly friendly industry is weak, and measures at the government level are urgently needed. Especially, housing problems of the elderly are one of the most urgent measures to be taken. Korea does not have the minimum residential area standard for the elderly, and the current general minimum residential area standard is based on the survey of the housing situation without scientific evidence. Therefore, both standards need to be revised as soon as possible based on scientific evidence. Methods: The minimum residential area standard has been calculated following Karl H. E. Kroemer's Min or Max design also being called as-single cut and dual cut theory- as the maximum population value and minimum population value theory of Ernest J. McCormick. Therefore there is a need for a formula made using a few key factors, such as corresponding dimension, practical dimension, clearance, spare dimension, integrated dimension. These elements can be defined and used as formulas to calculate minimum residential area standards. Results: Assuming the results of the spatial variability in this study showed that it is possible to raise the standard of living in a terms of sustainable minimum size for the young, old and all residents. Implications: The government should set a minimum residential area standard with scientific grounds and set up a policy improving the life of people who live in an needy residential environment.
Ti-6Al-4V alloy is a critical strategic metal used in aerospace structure due to the high specific strength, toughness, durability, low density, corrosion resistance. Examples of application of this alloy are airframe structural components, aircraft gas turbine disks and blades. Forming of this alloy is not easy due to its high strength and low formability. However, this alloy shows superplastic properties that allow for large plastic deformation under certain conditions. Combination of superplastic forming and diffusion bonding(SPF/DB) processes of this alloy has been widely used to replace mechanically fastened structures with reduced weight and fabrication costs. In this study, superplastic forming/diffusion bonding technology has been developed for fabricating lightweight sandwich panels with Ti-6Al-4V alloy. The experimental results show the forming of titanium lightweight sandwich structure is successfully performed from 3 and 4 sheets of Ti-6Al-4V.
This paper presents a torque control method of a hydraulic actuation system for measuring the dynamic stiffness of missile fin actuators. We propose a new control technique called Dual Dynamic Torque Feedback Control(DDTFC), which improves the stability of the torque control system and enables fast tracking of torque command. The developed control scheme is derived from the physical understanding based on mathematical modelling and analysis. The dynamics of hydraulic torque control servo-system is unravelled via physics-based modelling and nonparametric system identification. In order to verify the effectiveness of the method, the experiment is carried out with a test equipment for measuring the dynamic stiffness. The experiment and simulation results show that DDTFC gives stability improvement.
This is a comparative study mainly on foreign countries' domestic standards and laws on barrier free housing construction that can be applied to the dwelling of elderly friendly apartment housing. Eight countries - the United States, Germany, Canada, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, Australia, Japan, and China - were reviewed as foreign cases. The analyzed subjects were design standards only for the disabled and the aged. To compare barrier-free guides of the eight countries, each barrier-free guide on three space units (entrance, bedroom, living room) was divided into 11 design items and 36 design factors. The comparative analysis on foreign cases was based on the design guide according to Korea's KS P 1509 (principle and recommendation for designing dimension of dwelling in consideration of the elderly). Some factors -if with dimensions- were compared by means of the skewness of distribution. In the analysis result, there were not only common standards for the nine countries such as a dimension of the space for wheelchair movement but also different standards such as heights of outlets and horizontal lengths of bathtub grab bars. The detailed analysis shows that it is urgently necessary to prepare new domestic national design standards for 8 factors that foreign countries already have. It is also needed to immediately prepare dimension standards for the design factors, which have no detailed dimensions but only national guides, in consideration for anthropometric dimension.
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이 논문은 오늘날 고령노인과 장애노인의 증가에 따른 노인 의료비부담이 커지고 있는 상황에서, 노인 의료비부담을 줄이고 의료서비스를 활성화시킬 정책을 제안하기 위해 노인의료비의 부담실태, 집단특성에 따른 의료비 부담 정도, 의료비부담에 결정적으로 영향을 미치는 요인 등을 밝히고자 하였다. 분석결과 연구대상 노인들은 86.9%가 한가지 이상의 만성질환을 앓고 있었으며, 연령이 많을수록, 여성일수록, 학력이 낮을수록, 배우자가 없을수록 건강이 좋지 않은 것으로 나타났다. 의료비부담에 영향을 미치는 요인들간의 상관관계를 분석한 결과 건강상태가 좋지 않고 사회계층에서 하층노인들의 의료비부담이 큰 것으로 나타났다. 건강상태와 의료비부담에 결정적으로 영향을 미치는 요인들을 확인하기 위한 다중회귀분석 결과, 건강상태에 결정적으로 영향을 미치는 요인은 만성질환 유무이었으며, 의료비부담에 결정적으로 영향을 미치는 요인은 가계소득인 것으로 나타났다. 따라서 노인 의료비 부담이 큰 노인들의 소득을 증대시키고 의료비 부담을 줄여주기 위해서는 일할 의지가 있는 노인들에게는 일자리 창출, 직업교육, 직업알선 등 정책적 지원을 해주고, 노동능력이 없는 만성질환 노인들에게는 장기요양 및 치료서비스를 받을 수 있는 저가의 요양시설들을 제공해 주어야 할 것이다. This article aimed to understand how much the elderly pay for medical expense, to find out some factors related to medical expense burden, and to suggest the alternative policies to decrease excessive medical expenses burden. 86.9% of the selected elderly had th chronic diseases and their medical expenses burden rate was the average 3.9%. The variables having a great influence on medical expenses burden were age, sex, education, single household of the elderly. the results of correlation analysis between factors that influence on medical expenses burden were that the medical service burden of the elderly in low stratum and weak health conditions was heavy. According to regression analysis, the factor that influenced finally on health conditions was a chronic disease, and the factor that influenced finally on the medical expenses burden was household income. I would like to suggest alternative policies that increase to household income and decrease the medical service burden. The public assistance for Job creation, job education, job outplacement of the elderly need to be supported on welfare dimension. The medical treatment and rest equipments of a low-cost for the elderly need to be expanded. And the home medical service system need to be activated for the elderly who do not want equipment expropriation.
In this paper, wake equalizing duct (WED) form optimization was carried out using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) techniques. A WED is a ring-shaped flow vane with a foil-type cross-section fitted to a hull in front of the upper propeller area. The main advantage of a WED is the power savings resulting from the uniformity of the velocity distribution on the propeller plane, a reduction in the flow separation at the aft-body, and lift generation with a forward force component on the foil section. This paper intends to evaluate these functions and find an optimized WED form for minimizing the viscous resistance and equalizing the wake distribution. In the optimization process, the study uses four WED parameters: the angle of the section, longitudinal location, and angles of the axes for the half rings against the longitudinal and transverse planes of the ship. KRISO 300K VLCC2 (KVLCC2) is chosen as an example ship to demonstrate the WED optimization. The optimization procedure uses genetic algorithms (GAs), a gradient-based optimizer for the refinement of the solution, and Non-dominated Sorting GA-Ⅱ(NSGA-Ⅱ) for Multiobjective Optimization. The results show that the optimized WED can reduce the viscous resistance at the expense of the uniformity of the wake distribution.