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Airway management is challenging during general anesthesia particularly in small infants. Airway obstruction is prone to occur in premature infants during general anesthesia due to several reasons. We report a case of airway obstruction occurred during the induction of general anesthesia in a 2-month-old infant. Several attempts at endotracheal intubation with positive pressure ventilation resulted in repeated patterns of no end-tidal carbon dioxide output after each trial of endotracheal intubation, but it was reappeared after extubation. However, anesthetic induction with self-respiration and gentle assistance with manual bagging led to a successful intubation. This case was explained by hydromechanics in a collapsible premature airway.
This study was performed to produce ethanol from acetate using a genetically engineered Ralstonia eutropha. In order to genetically modify R. eutropha H16, phaCAB operon encoding metabolic pathway genes from acetyl-CoA to polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) was deleted and adhE encoding an alcohol dehydrogenase from Escherichia coli was overexpressed for conversion of acetyl-CoA to ethanol. The resulting strain produced ethanol up to 170 mg/L when cultivated in minimal media supplemented with 5 g/L of acetate as a sole carbon source. Growth and ethanol production were optimized by adjusting nitrogen source (NH4Cl) content and repetitive feeding of acetate into the bacterial culture, by which the ethanol production was reached to approximately 350 mg/L for 84 h.
본 연구에서는 아로니아 베리 열매 및 잎 추출물의 항산화 활성을 비교 연구하였다. 아로니아 베리 열매의 에틸아세테이트 분획 및 아글리콘 분획의 free radical 소거 활성(FSC50)은 각각 16.29 μg/mL 및 12.29μg/mL이었으며, 열매추출물의 free radical 소거활성은 잎 추출물 경우보다 높게 나타났다. Luminol-의존성화학발광법을 이용한 Fe3+-EDTA/H2O2계에서 생성된 활성산소종(reactive oxygen species, ROS)에 대한아로니아 베리 열매 추출물의 총 항산화능(OSC50)은 에틸아세테이트 분획의 경우 2.86 μg/mL, 아글리콘 분획은 1.80 μg/mL로, 아글리콘 분획의 총항산화능은 ascorbic acid (1.50 μg/mL)와 비슷한 활성을 나타내었다.총항산화능에서도 열매 추출물이 잎 추출물 보다 활성이 높은 것으로 나타났다. 사람 적혈구의 1O2로 유도된세포손상에 대한 보호 효과 실험에서 열매의 아글리콘 분획은 농도의존적(5 ~ 50 μg/mL)으로 세포보호 효과를 나타내었다. 열매 아글리콘분획의 τ50은 10 μg/mL에서 72.3 min으로 지용성 항산화제로 알려진 (+)-α-tocopherol (38.0 min)보다 1.9 배 더 큰 세포보호 효과를 나타내었다. 이상의 결과들은 아로니아 베리의 열매 추출물이 잎 추출물보다 높은 항산화능을 나타내며, 태양 자외선에 노출된 피부에서 발생되는 1O2를 포함하는 ROS에 대항하여 세포를 보호함으로써 기능성 항산화 화장품 소재로서의 응용 가능성이 있음을 시사한다. In this study, the antioxidative effects of Aronia melanocarpa fruit and leaf extracts were investigated. Thefree radical (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, DPPH) scavenging activities (FSC50) of the ethylacetate and aglycone fractionsof fruit extracts were 16.29 μg/mL, and 12.29 μg/mL, respectively. The free radical scavenging activity of fruitextract was higher than that of leaf extracts. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging activities (OSC50) of the ethylacetateand aglycone fractions of fruit extracts on ROS generated in Fe3+-EDTA/H2O2 system using the luminol-dependentchemiluminescence assay showed 2.86 μg/mL, and 1.80 μg/mL, respectively. ROS scavenging activity of the aglyconefraction of fruit extracts was similar to that of L-ascorbic acid (1.50 μg/mL). The ROS scavenging activity offruit extracts was higher than that of leaf extracts. The cellular protective effects of aglycone fraction of fruit extracts(τ50 = 72.3 min) on the1O2-induced cellular damage of human erythrocytes especially were increased in a concentrationdependent manner (5 ~ 50 μg/mL). τ50 (72.3 min) of the aglycone fraction showed 1.9 times higher than (+)-α-tocopherol (38 min), known as lipophilic antioxidant at 10 μg/mL. These results incidicate that A. melanocarpa fruitextracts have higher antioxidant effects than leaf extracts and could be applicable to functional cosmetics materials forantioxidants by protecting skin exposed to solar UV radiation against ROS including1O2.
The purpose of this study is to examine the mediating effects of promotion and prevention focus on the relationship between growth mindset and job engagement in elementary school teachers. For this purpose, we distributed online questionnaires regarding growth mindset, promotion and prevention focus, and job engagement to 354 elementary school teachers in Seoul and Gyeonggi areas from December 25 to December 31, 2018 and collected 323 final data. The results of the analysis are as follows. First, the correlation between the main variables except for the correlation between promotion and prevention focus was significant. Second, the partial mediation effect of promotion and prevention focus was confirmed in the relationship between growth mindset and job engagement of elementary school teachers. As a result, the growth mindset of elementary school teachers positively influenced job engagement, and mediators such as promotion and prevention focus also show significant mediation effects. The results of this study imply that it is necessary to create a sociocultural climate and education program to promote the growth mindset, with enhancing promotion and prevention focus, in order to improve the elementary school teachers' job engagement. 이 연구의 목적은 초등교사의 성장 마인드셋과 직무몰입의 관계에서 향상초점과 예방초점의 매개효과를 검증하는 것이다. 이를 위하여 2018년 12월 25일부터 12월 31일까지 서울 경기 지역 초등교사 354명을 대상으로 온라인 설문을 배부한 후 최종적으로 323명의 자료를 수집하였고, 주요 변인들의 기술통계와 상관관계를 구하고 측정모형 및 연구모형을 검증하였다. 분석결과는 다음과 같다. 첫째, 향상초점과 예방초점간의 상관을 제외한 주요 변인간의 상관관계는 유의미하게 나타났다. 둘째, 초등교사의 성장 마인드셋과 직무몰입의 관계에서 향상초점과 예방초점의 부분매개효과가 확인되었다. 이를 구체적으로 제시하면, 초등교사의 성장 마인드셋은 직무몰입에 긍정적 영향을 미쳤으며, 매개변인인 향상초점과 예방초점에 의한 매개효과 역시 유의미한 것으로 확인되었다. 이러한 연구결과는 초등교사의 직무몰입 향상을 위해 성장 마인드셋을 증진시키는 사회문화적 분위기 조성 및 교육 프로그램 개발이 필요하며, 이때 향상초점과 예방초점을 고려할 필요가 있음을 시사한다.
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IT융합기술은 점차적으로 인간 중심적, 저탄소 녹색성장을 모토로 하여 진화하고 있다. 증강현실 기술이란 현실 세계의 감각을 유지하면서 가상의 객체를 혼합할 수 있는 융합콘텐츠 기술이다. 시스템과 사용자 사이의 상호작용이 가능하고, 다양한 응용을 할 수 있으며, 확장성이 매우 높다. 본 논문에서는 기존의 상호작용에 대한 범위를 확장하기 위해 상황적 UX 기반의 스마트 증강현실 시스템을 제안하고자 한다. 실세계 환경 변화에 반응하는 가상 객체를 생성할 수 있는 시스템으로써 사용자는 본인의 개인적인 취향을 직접 가상 객체에 적용할 수 있다. 또한 다수의 가상 객체를 한꺼번에 영상 정합할 수 있으며, 조명의 밝기에 따라 낮과 밤에 해당하는 애니메이션을 보여주기도 한다. 이와 같이 복합적인 사용성을 갖는 시스템을 통해 사용자의 만족도를 높이고, 증강현실 콘텐츠에 대한 지속적인 사용을 유도할 수 있도록 한다. IT convergence technology is gradually becoming anthropocentric and evolving based on the low-carbon green growth. Augmented reality technique is a contents convergence technology that can mix virtual objects while maintaining a sense of the real world. For that reason, interaction between user and system is possible, can make various applications, and has a high possibility for expandability. To expand the scope of existing interaction, this paper suggests contextual UX-based augmented reality system. It is a system which creates virtual objects that respond to the changes in the real world environment, and users can directly apply their personal preferences to virtual objects. Also, several virtual objects can be registered all at once, and even shows animations corresponding to either day and night according to the brightness of illumination. As said, it improves user's satisfaction through a system of mixed usability, and leads to a continuous use of augmented reality contents.
The high load of protozoan parasites in marine bivalves often leads to mass mortalities of the hosts. On the west coast of Korea in the Yellow Sea, the protozoan parasite Perkinsus olseni has been identified as the agent causing mass mortality of Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum. During August and September 2004, mass mortality of clam occurred at Hwangdo (HD) tidal flat in Anmyeondo Island on the west coast, resulting in a 50% reduction in the clam landings. Shortly after the mortality event, we examined pathology, and the fitness of the survived clams from HD to elucidate the impacts of P. olseni infection. Histology revealed that clams collected from HD in October 2004 were infected by P. olseni. In histology, P. olseni could be observed from all types of tissues of clams from HD, and severe inflammation was observed in the gills. Ray's fluid thioglycollate medium assay (RFTM) indicated that the infection intensity in clams from HD (1.738 × 106 cells/g gills in October and 1.476 × 106 cells/g gills in December) was significantly higher than the levels in clams from the neighboring tidal flats (0.001 to 0.622 × 106 cells/g gills, P < 0.05). Condition index (CI) and the total carbohydrate levels in clams from HD in October were significantly lower than those values in clams from other tidal flats (P < 0.05). In October, a negative correlation was observed between P. olseni infection intensity and CI in clams from HD, suggested that a high load of P. olseni causes substantial impacts on the host condition.
Objectives: Hyperuricemia is known to be a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The variables related to metabolic syndrome(MS), as well as other cardiovascular risk factors such as serum uric acid, differ according to gender. The study was performed to assess the relationship of serum uric acid (SUA) with metabolic syndrome in middle- aged healthy women and observed the patterns of those association in pre- and post- menopausal status. Methods: The 757 women aged over 40 years who had visit for Health examination were enrolled and divided into four groups (Quartile 1:1.7~3.6 mg/dL, Quartile 2:3.7~4.2 mg/dL, Quartile 3:4.3~4.8 mg/dL, Quartile 4:4.9~7.6 mg/dL) according to their SUA level. The blood pressure, lipid profiles, fasting serum glucose, waist circumference, high sensitivity CRP and apolipoprotein were compared between the four group. The MS was defined by the modified ATP III criteria. Results: The prevalence of MS was 16.8%. There was a positive association between SUA and component of MS excepting fasting serum glucose, respectively (p<0.001). After adjustment for covariates, the risk of women in the highest quartile of SUA (4.9~ 7.6 mg/dL) had 2.14 (95% CI: 1.16~3.97) fold increase in risk of MS as compared with those who were in the lowest quartile (1.7~3.6 mg/dL). and the same patterns were observed in pre-and post menopausal status. The association between SUA and MS observed more strangely in pre-menopausal status than post-menopausal status but interaction between SUA and menopausal status was not significant. Conclusion: Our study suggests that SUA levels were independently associated with metabolic syndrome. Although the SUA level was in the normal range, the risk of metabolic syndrome was increased with an elevated serum uric acid level. However, because of the cross-sectional nature of our study, these findings should be confirmed in prospective cohort studies.
Purpose: The inverted nipple presents many problems in both cosmetic and functional aspects. The histopathologic features of inverted nipple are that inverted nipple has less fibromuscular tissue than normal nipple, short lactiferous duct and dense fibrous tissue. Many papers have been reported for correction of the inverted nipple, however not many medical literatures has specifically described about traction method. Although traditional traction methods were using half of urine cup or lid of bottle, they were uncomfortable and incapable for wearing brassiere. Methods: We invented a simple and more natural method using a dome-shape plastic disposable lid of take-out cup. We applied new device for three patients after corrective surgery. Results: For long term follow up, all patients satisfied their postoperative status and they were comportable with the lids. Conclusion: This new method is very simple, comfortable, and effective method for traction. It also allows patients to wear the brassiere.