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본 연구목적은 어깨재활운동 융합프로그램의 효과를 확인하기 위함이다. 비동등성 대조군 전후설계에 따라 어깨수술 환자 58명을 연구대상으로 하였다. 실험군에게는 동영상교육, 어깨재활운동 및 운동모니터링으로 구성한 어깨재활운동 융합 프로그램을 적용하였다. 자료는 구조화된 질문지와 어깨관절운동범위를 측정하여 수집하였으며 기술통계, χ2-test, t-test 및 ANCOVA로 분석하였다. 연구결과 실험군의 어깨통증은 대조군보다 유의하게 낮았으며(p<.001), 어깨관절운동범위와 운동 자기효능감은 대조군보다 유의하게 높았다(p=.038; p<.001). 그러므로 어깨재활운동 융합프로그램은 어깨수술환자를 위한 효 과적인 재활중재로 활용될 수 있으며 다양한 임상실무영역에서 지속적인 융합중재개발의 확장이 요구된다. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of shoulder rehabilitation exercise convergence program. This study used a nonequivalent control group pretest-posttest design. A sample of 58 patients undergoing shoulder surgery, was included. The experimental group was given shoulder rehabilitation exercise convergence program including audiovisual education, shoulder rehabilitation exercise and exercise monitoring. The data were collected using a structured questionnaire and measured range of motion(ROM) of shoulder joint and were analyzed using descriptive statistics, χ2-test, t-test and ANCOVA. The experimental group reported significantly lower shoulder pain than control group(p<.001). Shoulder joint ROM and exercise self-efficacy were significantly higher in the experimental group than in the control group(p=.038; p<.001). This findings indicate that shoulder rehabilitation exercise convergence program can be an effective intervention for shoulder surgery patients. Continued development of convergence interventions for patients undergoing various conditions in practice, is suggested.
Avian paramyxovirus (APMV) type 4 and 6 were isolated during an avian influenza (AI) surveillance program of wild birds. This study also conducted experimental infection of wild-bird-origin APMV type 4 and 6 in specific pathogen free (SPF) chickens to study pathogenicity and transmission within domestic flocks. In addition, serological prevalence data of APMV type 4 and 6 in domestic fowls was conducted with chicken sera collected from 2007 to 2009 in order to understand infection status. The results of the animal experiment showed that APMV type 4 and 6 had the ability to infect chickens with sero-conversion and to transmit the virus from infected birds to contacted birds, but showed low pathogenicity. Serological tests revealed that APMV type 4 was widespread in the poultry industry, especially in layer flocks, but the positive rate for APMV type 6 was very low. This study concluded that wild bird-origin APMV type 4 and 6 could infect the chickens by inter-species transmission and the seroprevalence of APMV type 4 was quite high in Korean poultry. However, since almost all the chicken flocks had a high level of antibody titer against APMV type 1, there was possibility of cross reaction between APMV type 1 and 4, which made the interpretations more complicated. In order to understand infection status in the natural environment, additional study is necessary regarding the seroprevalence of APMV type 4 and 6 in the wild bird population.
A kimchi container actively controlling CO2 concentration by timely flushing of CO2 gas was structured and tested in its capability and effectiveness because high CO2 concentration enhances the sensory flavor of the product. The inlet and outlet valves of CO2 gas were programmed to open and close allowing synchronous vent/CO2 flush according to the requirements of its dissolution in the contained kimchi. During the chilled storage, the headspace of container could be maintained at desired high CO2 concentration providing the preferred kimchi in sensory quality compared to control of the conventional container. However, there was no significant difference between the high CO2 container and control (container simply closed with air) in kimchi quality attributes of pH, titratable acidity, total viable bacterial count, Lactobacillus sp. count and Leuconostoc sp. count. The flow rate and time interval of CO2 flushing need to be adjusted considering the kimchi amount, headspace volume and ripening time. The designed system has potential to be applied in refrigerator appliances in homes and food service industry
This study aims to analyze the effects of supervisor trust, co-worker trust, and perceived procedural justice on Korean public officials’ organizational commitment. It also examined the moderating effects of the perception of team-based culture on the link between interpersonal trust and organizational trust. Studies related to this subject had limitations in that they did not explore the relationships among different types of trusts because interpersonal trust and organizational trust were analyzed at the same level. Based on these limitations, this study set up a research model taking organizational trust as the mediating variable. It played the role of outcome variable for supervisor trust, co-worker trust, and procedural fairness; it also acted as the antecedent of organizational commitment. In addition, this study determined whether there were generation gap differences between in their 20s and 30s and 40s and 50s to identify team-based culture and its moderating effects so that the requirements for differentiated approaches could be suggested. The data for the research model comprised survey responses collected from 505 officials in 15 government ministries. The structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis results showed that perceived procedural justice and co-worker trust had positive (+) effects on organizational trust; meanwhile, supervisor trust had no effect on organizational commitment. Interestingly, the study revealed that there were differences in the perception levels among the different generation groups regarding team-based culture. Based on this empirical analysis, this paper discussed these findings’ implications for enhancing the organizational commitment of Korean public officials. 본 연구는 한국 중앙 공무원들의 상사신뢰, 동료신뢰, 인식된 절차공정성이 조직신뢰를 통해 조직몰입에 미치는 영향을 분석하였다. 또한, 대인신뢰와 조직신뢰 간의 영향관계에 있어 조직문화의 조절효과도 검증하였다. 대부분의 선행연구에서는 상사신뢰와 동료신뢰를 조직신뢰와 같은 수준에서 분석하여, 조직 내 대상 별 신뢰 간의 위계성, 역동성 등을 간과하였다는 점에서 한계가 있다. 이에, 본 연구는 조직신뢰를 상사신뢰와 동료신뢰의 결과변수이자, 궁극적으로 조직몰입을 제고시키는 매개변수로 가정하여 신뢰 간의 역동성을 규명하고, 관리적 차원에서 조직 신뢰를 높일 수 있는 함의를 제시하고자 한다. 또한, 세대 간 팀제문화 인식 수준의 차이를 확인하고, 이러한 차이가 신뢰와 조직몰입 사이에 어떠한 조절효과를 가지는지 규명함으로써 세대 간 차별화된 접근 방안을 제시하고자 한다. 이를 위해 본 연구는 15개의 정부 소속 부처에 종사하는 505명을 대상으로 수집한 설문자료를 바탕으로 가설을 검증하였다. 분석 결과, 인식된 절차공정성과 동료신뢰는 조직신뢰에 긍정적인 영향을 미치는 것으로 나타났으나, 상사신뢰는 유의미한 영향을 가지지 않았다. 또한, 팀 기반 문화에 대해 세대 간 인식 수준에 차이가 있음을 발견하였다. 이와 같은 실증 분석 결과를 토대로 한국 중앙 공무원들의 조직몰입 제고를 위한 조직적 차원의 제도적 함의와 세대별로 다른 관리 방안을 제시하였다.
Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) have detrimental effects on human health. Among these EDCs, bisphenol A (BPA) binds to the estrogen receptors (ERs) to stimulate estrogen-mediated responses. BPA is assumed to disrupt reproductive and development system on human. In addition, BPA has been suspected as a risk of carcinogenesis recently. Because BPA can cause abnormal estrogen-mediated response in the organism, the exposure to BPA may stimulate the growth of estrogen-dependent breast cancers in human. In breast cancer, cyclin E and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27 are important in G1/S phase transition during the cell cycle progression. In this study, we investigated the effect of BPA on the proliferation of MCF-7 breast cancer cells in vitro using an MTT assay. Also, we analyzed the transcriptional levels of cyclin E and p27 following BPA treatment using semi-quantitative RT-PCR. As a result, BPA significantly induced the breast cancer cell growth compared to a vehicle. BPA caused the alterations of cyclin E and p27 mRNA expressions. The expression of cyclin E was increased by BPA, while p27 was decreased at 24 h after treatment of BPA in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Taken together, these collective results suggest that the exposure of BPA induced breast cancer cell proliferation with deregulation of cell cycle. A further study is required to determine effects of BPA on carcinogenic process in in vivo models.
Dlx3 and Dlx5 are homeobox domain proteins and are well-known regulators of osteoblastic differentiation. Since possible reciprocal relationships between osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation in mesenchymal stem cells exist,we examined the regulatory role of Dlx3 and Dlx5 on adipogenic differentiation using human dental pulp stem cells. Over-expression of Dlx3 and Dlx5 stimulated osteogenic differentiation but inhibited adipogenic differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells. Dlx3 and Dlx5 suppressed the expression of adipogenic marker genes such as C/EBPα,PPARγ, aP2 and lipoprotein lipase. Adipogenic stimuli suppressed the mRNA levels of Dlx3 and Dlx5, whereas osteogenic stimuli enhanced the expression of Dlx3 and Dlx5in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. These results suggest that Dlx3 and Dlx5 exert a stimulatory effect on osteogenic differentiation of stem cells through the inhibition of adipogenic differentiation as well as direct stimulation.
As technology develops, U.S. state archives are using their websites to provide more and more information to state government agencies and the public, and more remote users are accessing and utilizing these websites. This study is the first to investigate how U.S. state archives collect information on their users and use of their archives and how they employ their websites to publicize these activities and their results for their own advocacy. Data was collected by examining and analyzing websites of all U.S. state archives, and the collected data was analyzed by content analysis and NVivo8 software. This study indicates that the websites of most state archives present little information on their users and usage of their archives and that U.S. state archive websites need to employ their websites for advocacy more effectively.
Objective : The purpose of this study was to investigate how undressing skill training based on Neurodevelopmental treatment (NDT) approach effected on the midline orientation and protective reaction of children with cerebral palsy (CP). Methods : Two participants of this study were 3 years 5 months old boy and 4 years 5 months old girl, living in B city. They were medically diagnosed as cerebral palsy. Research design used in this study is AB design for a single subject research. There was no intervention on the baseline A phases, and functional activity based NDT was used undressing skill training during the B phases. Midline orientation was tested by Stepping subtest in MAP. Protective reaction was measured by Protective reaction subtest in QUEST. Results : In comparison with the baseline (A), midline orientation was improved above 2 standard deviations at intervention phase (B). and protective reaction was improved above averages in both hands. Conclusion : The study showed undressing skill training based on NDT approach that were effective for midline orientation of children with CP. Undressing skill training was one of the major functional activities. Thus, large studies are required to ensure the training effects. 목적 : 본 연구는 뇌성마비 아동에게 신경발달치료 접근법을 기초한 옷 벗기 기술 훈련에 따른 신체중심선과 보호반응에 미치는 효과를 알아보고자 하였다. 연구방법 : 연구대상은 B시에 거주하는 만 3세 5개월 남아와 만 4세 5개월 여아로 뇌성마비 진단을 받았다. 본연구는 단일대상연구 중 AB 디자인을 사용하였고, 기초선 기간(A) 2회, 중재 기간(B) 10회로 총 12회기를 실시하였다. 중재는 신경발달치료 접근에 기초한 옷 벗기 훈련을 실시하였고, 평가로 신체중심선은 Miller Assessment for Preschoolers(MAP)의 하위 항목인 Stepping 항목을 사용하였으며, 보호반응은 Quality Upper Extremity Skill Test(QUEST) 검사의 하위 항목인 보호반응 항목을 사용하였다. 결과 : 아동의 신체중심선은 기초선 기간과 비교하여 중재기간이 2표준편차 이상으로 감소하였다. 보호반응은 오른쪽과 왼쪽 모두 중재기간 평균점수가 기초선 평균점수보다 높게 나타났다. 결론 : 뇌성마비 아동에게 신경발달치료접근법을 기초한 옷 벗기 기술 훈련이 신체중심선 향상에 효과적이었다. 앞으로 집단 연구를 통하여 그 효과를 확인하는 것이 필요할 것이다.