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Solution Processable Hybrid Hole Transport Layers for Organic Solar cells with Highly Enhanced Open-Circuit Voltage and Fill Factor
이형석,한용운,문두경 한국공업화학회 2019 한국공업화학회 연구논문 초록집 Vol.2019 No.0
Organic solar cells (OSCs) have been studied because of their low cost and simple manufacture process. However, OSCs have some disadvantages such as unbalanced carrier mobility, low stability resulted from energy level mismatch between electrode and active layer. To solve these issues, many researchers replaced MoO3 to various HTLs materials. Through solution process, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) is commonly used as HTLs by its high conductivity and solution processable properties. However, devices introduced PEDOT:PSS still attain lower power conversion efficiency (PCE) and stability than MoO3 deposited devices. Solution processable hybrid HTLs can be modified properties of carrier mobility and energy levels. In this study, we fabricated inverted structured OSCs with hybrid HTLs via solution process. As a result, the stability and performance of OSCs with solution processable hybrid HTLs were enhanced.
이형석 원광대학교 법학연구소 2012 의생명과학과 법 Vol.7 No.-
Informed consent is the process by which a fully informed patient can participate in choices about her health care. It originates from the legal and ethical right the patient has to direct what happens to her body and from the ethical duty of the physician to involve the patient in her health care. The informed consent doctrine is generally implemented through good healthcare practice: pre-operation discussions with patients and the use of medical consent forms in hospitals. However, reliance on a signed form should not undermine the basis of the doctrine in giving the patient an opportunity to weigh and respond to the risk. Informed consent for the establishment as the first element, there is the capacity to consent to the patient that, second, that there is an appropriate description (description requirement), the third, patients who received a description. Subjects randomly according to a conscious de cision that you agree (consent Requirements) of three things can be. This is based on the patients' rights and obligations regarding security and health will be reviewed in the field.
Accounting for the Effect of Household Debt on Economic Growth: The Role of Markup Dynamics
이형석,이준상 한국경제연구학회 2022 Korea and the World Economy Vol.23 No.2
This paper investigates the effect of household debt on aggregate markup, and consequently real GDP by using the local projection method found in Jordà (2005). We show that markup dynamics play a contributing role in examining the effect of household debt on real GDP. Our main empirical results are as follows: (1) An increase in household debt is positively related with aggregate markup. (2) Household consumption decreases as markup rises. (3) With the positive association between markup and household debt, real GDP and household consumption decrease in response to positive household debt shock.
유럽인권재판소 판결 집행감독과 아시아인권보장 시스템 적용에 관한 연구
이형석 한국외국어대학교 법학연구소 2018 외법논집 Vol.42 No.4
The Regional Convention on Human Rights was concluded in Europe, the Americas and Africa. For the effective guarantee, the European Court of Human Rights, the Inter-American Court of Human Rights and the African Court of Human Rights were installed. Out of the regional conventions on human rights, the European Convention on Human Rights is being evaluated as what is most virtual. The European Convention on Human Rights allows an individual with the assertion as saying of having been infringed the guaranteed freedom and right in light of the convention to be capable of making the request for the relief to the Court of Human Rights. To protect the human rights through the European Court of Human Rights, the supervisory system related to the implementation of the decision is important. The European Convention on Human Rights did put regulation pertinent to the execution procedure of final judgment at that time of enacting the convention. The supervision over the execution of the final judgment in the court of human rights is being taken charge by the cabinet committee that is composed of foreign ministers in the European Council Member Countries. The Protocol No. 14, which was effectuated in 2010, assigned the decision about the acknowledgement on the nonperformance of the enforcement obligations to the country that refuses to execute the final judgement. This study is aimed to verify its functional situation through a case research after examining a procedural characteristic and nature of supervising the execution of the final judgment by the European Cabinet Committee. According to this, the objective is to grasp the actual status of the supervisory activity of cabinet committee and to inquire into how the enforcement system of the convention on human rights is functioned on the whole. Also, the aim was to re-consider the existing evaluation of the convention on human rights in the international guarantee system of human rights, and to seek a method of securing effectiveness of the human rights in Asian region based on the supervisory procedure over the execution of the final judgement according to the introduction of the Asian court of human rights henceforward from this premise. 지역적 인권협약은 유럽, 미주, 아프리카에서 체결되었고, 실효적 보장을 위한 유럽인권재판소, 미 주인권재판소, 아프리카 인권재판소가 설치되었다. 지역적 인권협약 중 유럽인권협약은 가장 실효적인 것으로 평가받고 있다. 유럽인권협약은 협약 상 보장된 자유와 권리를 침해를 받았다고 주장하는 개인 이 인권재판소에 구제를 청구할 수 있다. 유럽인권재판소를 통한 인권의 보호를 위해서는 판결의 이행 에 관련된 감독제도가 중요하다. 유럽인권협약은 협약 제정 당시에 판결의 집행절차에 관한 규정을 두 었고, 인권재판소의 판결의 집행감독은 유럽평의회 가맹국의 외교부 장관으로 구성된 각료위원회가 담당하고 있다. 2010년에 발효된 제14의정서는 판결의 집행을 거부하고 있는 국가에 대하여 집행의무 의 불이행 인정에 관한 판단을 인권재판소에 부여하였다. 본 논문에서는 유럽 각료위원회에 의한 판결 의 집행감시의 절차상의 특징과 성격을 검토한 후에 그 기능상황을 사례연구를 통하여 검증하고자 한 다. 이에 따라 각료위원회의 감시활동을 실태를 파악하고 인권협약의 시행제도가 전체적으로 어떻게 기능하는지를 검토하고자 한다. 또한 인권의 국제적 보장제도에서 인권협약의 기존의 평가를 재검토 하고, 이를 전제로 차후 아시아 인권재판소의 도입에 따른 판결의 집행 감독절차에 의한 아시아 지역 인권의 실효성 보장 방안을 모색하고자 한다.
Large-area Organic Solar Cells with Hybrid Hole Transport Layers
이형석,한용운,문두경 한국공업화학회 2019 한국공업화학회 연구논문 초록집 Vol.2019 No.1
Organic solar cells (OSCs) have been studied for their possibility and simple process. Many groups research large-area OSCs. The large-area OSCs can be applied to mass production and commercialization for production and building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) system. However, as the active area of OSCs get larger, the resistance would get bigger. Thus, photovoltaic performance of OSCs are reduced more than small-area OSCs. To solve this limitation, modification of interfacial buffer layer is significant. Especially, hybrid hole transport layers (HTLs) can control surface morphology and interface properties. In this study, we fabricated large-area OSCs with hybrid hole transport layers via solution process. As a result, the stability and performance of OSCs with large-area active layer are enhanced