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The patency of small size vascular grafts is poor, and the blood flow characteristics in the artery graft anastomosis are suspected as one of the important factors influencing intimal hyperplasia. Disturbed flow patterns caused by sixte and compliance mismatch generate unfavorable flow environment which promotes intimal thickening. Tapered vascular yuts are suggested in order to reduce sudden expansion near the anastomosis. The photochromic flow visualization method is used to measure the flout fields in the end-to-end anastomosis model under the carotid and femoral artery flow wave form. The results show that flow disturbance near the anastomosis is diminished in the tapered grafts comparing to the tubular graft. As the divergent ang1e decreases, we can reduce the low and oscillatory wall shear stress zone which is prone to intimal hyperplasia. The flow wave form effects the wall shear rate dis- tribution significantly. The steep deceleration and back flow in the femoral flow wAve form cause low mean wall shear rate and high oscillatory shear index.
N/A Backround: Little is known about the mechanism of tumorigenesis in pituitary adenomas. An important finding in somatotroph adenomas is that a somatic mutation may convert a G protein, Gs(α) into a putative oncogene termed gsp via point mutations at two critcal sites. The ras protooncogenes are structurally related to the G-protein family and are involved in cell proliferation and differentiation. Although ras oncogene mutations have been indentified in a wide variety of human neoplasm, only one case was reported as containting single point mutation in a patient with invasive prolactinoma, In this report we used oligonucleotide-specific hybridization to screen ras mutations in 13 acromegalic tumors. Methods: Pituitary tissue samples were derived from a central portion of the paraffin embedded pituitary tumor to minimize the possibility of contamination with normal tissue. Genomic DNA was isolated and purified from tumor tissue and amplified by the standard PCR method. Amplified DNAs from each of the region of H-ras genes (12/13 and 61) were analyzed for potential ras mutations using oligonucleotide-specific hybridization as described previously. Results: Wild type radiolabelled oligoncleotides were hybridized to the amplified DNAs from the patients' tumor and to the positive specimens. They were, however, easily striped out at 68℃ by nonstringent washing procedures except control (wild type) specimens. All radiolabelled mutant oligonucleotides could be easily striped out of 13 specimens except a control mutant specimen by the same procedure. Conclusion: We could not find any H-ras mutation that might not be frequently found in acromegalic patients, and that gsp (Gsa mutation) or mutations in the PKA system-related proteins might be the main oncogene in acromegalic patients. However further efforts to find the other somatic mutations including K-ras and N-ras should be given to these patients for more precise understanding of pathogenesis and for planning of the better treatment.
N/A Of 501 Korean diabetics admitted to Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, non-obese non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) comprised 319 cases (63.7%), obese NIDDM 100 cases (19.9%) and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) 82 cases (16.4%). And in the IDDM group thus collected, juvenile-onset diabetes (JOD) comprised 17 cases (3.4%), youth-onset underweight diabetes (YOUD) 25 cases (5.0%) and maturity-onset underweight diabetes (MOUD) 40 eases (8.0%). The caloire intakes just before the onset of diabetes in YOUD and MOUD patients were found to be 63.1% and 60.9% and the intakes of protein 55.9% and 79.8% of the recommended dietary allowance, respectively. Among JOD, YOUD and MOUD, there were no significant differences in body weight, and fasting blood glucose and HbA1c levels at the time of admission. The basal and peak serum C-peptide levels in YOUD (1.03±0.61ng/ml, 1.59±1.23ng/ml) were slightly higher than those in JOD (0.64±0.30ng/ml, 1.05±0.54ng/ml), but significantly lower than those in MOUD (1.61±0.73ng/ml, 2.65±1.30ng/ml). Between JOD and YOUD, there was no significant difference in family histories (23.5%, 24.0%) or clinical features. However, MOUD turned out to have significantly lower family history (2.5%), no history of diabetic ketoacidosis and more pulmonary tuberculosis than the former 2 groups. Of 29 young diabetics (JOD and YOUD) who were followed-up at OPD, 14 cases (5 JOD and 9 YOUD) were ketosis-resistant. These data suggest that, in Korea which is located in temperate zone, malnutrition-related diabetes mellitus (MRDM) can be mainly classified into 2 groups: The youth-onset one had the characteristics of IDDM with the history of undernutrition and ketosis-resistance, and the maturity-onset one may belong to NIDDM with the higher susceptibility to pulmonary tuberculosis.
XLPE(Crosslinkable Polyethylene) 케이블은 절연성이 우수하여 전력용으로 많이 사용되고 있다. 그러나, 시설된지 오래된 케이블의 노후화와 지중 매설 케이블의 시공시 및 포설이후 외부손상 등으로 인해 정전사고가 많이 발생하고 있는 추세이다. 본 논문은 케이블의 외부 손상에 의해 발생하는 부분방전에 의해 공간으로 전파되는 전자파를 측정하는 UHF법을 통해 주파수 스펙트럼을 측정하고 측정된 데이터 처리를 통해 방전진전에 따른 스펙트럼의 특성을 분석하였다.