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        • KCI등재

          『漢陽』所載 在日韓人文學의 연구 방향과 과제

          이헌홍(Lee Heon-Hong) 부산대학교 한국민족문화연구소 2005 한국민족문화 Vol.25 No.-

          The purpose of this article is to present the necessity of a study on the literary works and related discourses in Hanyang, the Korean magazine that was ever published in Tokyo, Japan. This article will be concluded by summarizing the critical discussion and mentioning the task of study in the future. Firstly, it seems that it was, after all, ethnic Japanese-Korean writers who played a leading role in the literary works and related discourses in Hanyang, The study on ethnic Japanese-Koreans' literature so far is limited to comparatively well-known writers such as Kim Seok Beom, Lee Hee Seong, Lee Yang Ji, Kim Dal Soo, etc., and their Japanese works. Reviewing Hanyang would make it possible for us to sub-categorize the ethnic Japanese-Koreans' literature into Japanese literature and Korean literature. Secondly, the analysis and study of the literary works and related discourses in this magazine would enable us to widen and deepen Korean literature as well as to come closer to ethnic Japanese-Koreans' literature. This argument might be found convincing, considering that during the initial 10 years of Hanyang, Kim Cheol Soo, Jeong Cheal, Park Young Il, Gyung Ryun, Jeong Young Hoon, Kim Yoon, Park Il Dong, Kim Soon Nam, Jang Il Dong, etc., writers or critics quite unknown in the history of Korean literature, published the works ranging from 15 to 60. Thirdly, It is also important to unearth the works not known to the academic world yet among those ever published in Hanyang, For the writers who used to produce works in Korea, many of their works are thought to be known through the works or the complete works. However, it is also assumed that there are many works which are not known yet for various reasons. Lastly, Hanyang has been neglected in the history of Korean literature, even though it is the Korean literature magazine in which ethnic Japanese-Korean writers published literary works and gave a literary criticism in Korean language. Now it is time to investigate into the bibliographical reality of its literary works and related discourses so that it can be utilized as basic data for a subject to be followed.

        • KCI등재

          에스닉 잡지 소재 재일한인 생활사소설의 양상과 의미

          이헌홍(Lee Heon-Hong) 한국문학회 2007 韓國文學論叢 Vol.47 No.-

          '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

            The purpose of this paper is to examine the kinds of novels through which the Koreans in Japan portray themselves and the significance which the novels carry. For this, sorted out were 30 novels of the ethnic Koreans" lives in Japan among numerous ones put in such ethnic magazines as 『Hanyang』, 『Samcheolli』and 『Cheonggu』. Then they were classified into three patterns, 16 works typical of each pattern were analyzed to infer the significance, and the study topics not quite dealt with in this paper were presented. It is summarized as follows:<BR>  1. the pattern and significance of novels of the Koreans" lives in Japan<BR>  (l) The first pattern is the novels that depict the hardships of the ethnic Koreans in Japan who live a floating life and their hope of settling down. These novels are in turn divided into the types of novels about the Koreans who drown their nostalgia and the types of novels about the Koreans who endlessly challenge themselves to survive in Japan. Wanderers ultimately desire to work hard and save enough money to go back home and settle down or to live an endless challenging life for survival in japan, which is a place far away from home. However, their desire never gets off the ground, and it rarely comes true.<BR>  (2) The emigration to Japan accompanies the separation from a family. The ethnic Koreans in Japan dream of returning to their hometown and living as a host. Mostly such a dream just remained hard to fulfill. The dream, however, has continued on without ceasing until the second and third generation, and further, the fourth and fifth, though the intensity is different. Some novels depict the agony and longing of separated families and the reality of their unfulfilled dream of homecoming and reunion. Others depict the shared agony transcending the generation difference and the hope of reunion through overcoming the agony.<BR>  (3) The orientation to be an "ethnic Korean in japan" is simply changeable according to the internal and external circumstances or times to which he/she is exposed. Taking this situation into consideration, the author categorized the reality of oppressed desire for belonging and stability and the agony of where to belong, and examined the pattern in which the themes develop in novels with a result that there are two types. Some works show a natural argument for national consciousness and its limits. Others depict ethnic Koreans" root chasing and self-awakening of ethnicity in japan.<BR>  2. Future projects.<BR>  (l) To study the works not analyzed in this paper, among the novels of the ethnic Koreans" lives that were put in the three magazines, particularly over 10 works in 『Samcheolli』.<BR>  (2) To study the authors who contributed the novels of the ethnic Koreans" lives to 『Hanyang』, such as Kim Cheol-su, Kim Gyeong-sik, Jeong Cheol, Lee Sun-hak, Lee Sang-Jik.<BR>  (3) To analyze in terms of an author the novelists who contributed more than two works of the ethnic Koreans" lives to 『Hanyang』 and 『Samcheolli』, such as Kim Cheol-su, Kim Gyeong-sik, Kim Hak-yeong, Kim Seck-beom, Kim Tae-saeng, Jeong Seung-bak, Kim Dal-su, Won Su-il, so that the study can be deeper and wider.<BR>  (4) To examine and analyze the correlation between the character of each of the magazines, such as 『Hanyang』, 『Samcheolli』, 『Cheonggu』, and the novels put in them in order to further the significance.

        • KCI등재

          〈황금은 흑사심〉의 창작설화적 성격

          이헌홍(Lee Heon Hong) 동남어문학회 2005 동남어문논집 Vol.19 No.-

          '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

          In the process of collecting and arranging folk tales, the word rrangement'ans the modification of parts of usages or detailed expressions while transcribing the folk tales collected. But some folk tales of ethnic Koreans in China prove to be aggressive creations that defy this definition and that have a totally different story development. Obviously this is the creation of new folk tales, and not 'arrangement.' This study is designed to examine a creative aspect of the folk tales of ethnic Koreans in China through such examples. For this purpose, an analysis was made of Kim, Jae Kwon's work among folk tales entitled『Hwanggeumeun Heugsasims』(Gold Corrupts Humans), leading to the identification of creativity that does not exist in the ordinary way of story development. This work, which makes effective use of fictional scenes and circumstances based on ethnic Koreans' experiences about settlement, has created a creative folk tale. This is made possible by the narrative that gives an effect to arouse original, new affectivity or significance, beyond expository narrative. This narrative has been proved by analyzing the phases of plot development, the symbolism and condensation of conversation, the desire and psychological change of characters, the description of environment or detailed circumstances, etc.. In other words, 『Hwanggeumeun Heugsasim』(Gold Corrupts Humans) can be identified as having an effect to create a genre of creative folk tale.

        • KCI등재
        • KCI등재

          재일한인 소설에서의 혼인, 결핍 현실의 상징과 그 탈출구

          이헌홍(Lee, Heon-Hong) 한국문학회 2010 韓國文學論叢 Vol.56 No.-

          '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

          재일한인 소설 중에서 혼인 문제 즉, 부부관계를 맺거나 부부생활을 영위하는데 얽힌 사연을 중심축으로 하여 전개되는 작품은 필자가 찾은 것만도 10여 편이다. 여기서는 그 작품들 중에서도 특히, 혼인을 통해 결핍 현실을 담아내면서 그로부터의 탈출구를 모색하고 있는 경우를 살펴보았다. 1. 결핍의 현실 때문에 혼인 생활을 지속적으로 영위할 수 없음은 물론, 그 결핍으로부터 벗어날 수 있는 출구조차 제대로 보이지 않는 경우를 그린 작품이 김경식의 <낙일>(1966년)이다. 여기서 주인공 내외가 겪는 삶은 광복 전후의 혼란기를 무대로 전개되는 재일한인의 결핍 현실은 물론, 출구조차 찾을 길 없는 암울한 일상 그 자체를 대변하는 것이다. 2. 김석범의 <결혼식 날>(1978년)에서는 결핍 현실로 인한 1세의 안타까움과 그로부터의 탈출구가 2세에 이르러서야 겨우 마련되고 있는 모습을 보인다. 여기서 우리는 재일한인의 특이한 삶이 대물림되면서 조금씩이나마 밝은 빛을 더해가는 모습을 더듬게 된다.3. 원수일의 <뱀과 개구리>(1983년)에서 사위와 장모는 혼인을 통해 각자의 결핍을 해소하려고 한다. 그러나 총각은 사랑하는 처녀를 아내로 맞은 대신 장모에게 종속당하는 처지가 된다. 이처럼 혼인을 통해 스스로 마련한 출구에도 함께 하는 공생의 영역이 있는가 하면, 각자의 목표에 집착하는 이기적 영역 또한 엄연한 현실임을 보여주고 있다. 4. 현행자의 <순이의 결혼>(1997년)은 결핍 현실과 그 돌파구로서의 혼인이라는 의미와 함께, ‘미지의 세계 일본, 그곳에 사는 재일동포와의 결혼’이라는 환상에 빠져 서두른 결혼이 몰고 올 위험성도 아울러 보여주고 있다. 그러나 그것을 불행으로만 치부하지 아니하고, 자기에게 주어진 운명으로 담담히 받아들이면서 자신의 역할을 찾아나서는 여주인공의 마음에서 우리는 혼인의 참된 의미를 다시 생각하게 된다. 5. 위의 논의로 미루어볼 때 혼인의 진정한 의미는 어느 일방의 행복 즉, 결핍에 대한 충족이나 소망의 성취에 있는 것이 아니라, 서로의 상처를 보듬고 함께 헤쳐가면서 새로운 삶, 새로운 세계를 일구어 나감에 있다는 평범한 진리를 다시 확인하게 된다. 이와 함께 분석 대상 작품의 창작 시기가 우연히도 60년대, 70년대, 80년대, 그리고 90년대인데, 이에 따라 결핍 현실에 대처하는 방식의 차이에도 주목할 필요가 있지 않을까 한다. Of the novels written by Japan-based Korean authors, those which narrate about the episodic stories centering around the subject of marriage - namely, certain sorts of stories developed through the character's involvement into a husband/wife relationship or the maintenance of his/her marriage life - are more than a few. In my personal research so far, there are about ten works that specifically depict marriage lives. In this paper, among those works, the focus is put on the narrative development and the meaning of such cases that the reality of ‘life with a lack’ is described by means of ‘marriage’and, also, exits from the state of lack are sought out therein. The overview of such cases can be summarized as follows: 1. For the works that depict a certain situation in which the reality of ‘life with a lack’ mars the actual sustaining of the marriage life and, also, blurs the vision for any possible exit, Nak Il by Gyoung-Sik Kim(1966) is a good example. In the novel, the kind of life that the main characters, a married couple, go through represents not only the reality with a lack for Japan-based Koreans - in the chaotic times around the Korean Independence - but also the gloomy, dark aspect of their everyday life with no exit to be found whatsoever. 2. In Seok-Beom Kim's A Wedding Day(1978), the devastation oozed out of the reality with a lack is portrayed through the life of a first-generation Japan-based Korean. The obtainment of the basis of the exit from such a reality is barely made possible when the second-generation Koreans come into the scene. In that phase, one can get a grasp of the life changes that the a typical lives of the Japan-based Koreans come to gain brightness bit by bit while showing the inevitable inheritance. 3. The son-in-law and the mother-in-law featuring in Soo-Il Won's A Snake and A Frog(1983) attempt to resolve the lack of his own by means of a marriage. The young man, however, falls into a situation in that he has to remain subordinate to his mother-in-law at the cost of getting the love of his life to become his wife. With the marriage functioning as a key clue, this story illustrates that even the self-acquired exit has a symbiotic area and, also, that the individual obsessions with their goals represent the egocentric dimension of the very reality. 4. With a focus on ‘the reality with a lack’ and the entailment of marriage as an escape from such a reality, Soon-Yi's Wedding(1997) by Haeng-Ja Hyun shows us the possible risks/dangers of any marriage done in haste from the illusion of ‘getting married to a Korean who lives in Japan, a new, unknown world’. It, nevertheless, invites the readers to rethink the true meaning of marriage by describing the main female character's mental attitude to calmly accept the circumstances as her given fate, not a misfortune, and look for the roles of her own in life. 5. From the above stated discussion, we come to be reassured of the simple truth that the true meaning of marriage lies not in the happiness of one party (i.e. the replenishment of a lack or the accomplishment of a dream or wish) but in the process of working toward a new life and a new world while embracing each other's wounds and getting over the scars together. In addition, noticing that those literary works analyzed here happen to have the 60's, 70's, 80's, and 90's as their chronological settings respectively, this paper suggests that it also should be worthwhile to pay attention to the differences in the manner in which characters react to the reality with a lack.

        • KCI등재

          재일 한인 생활사의 수필문학적 형상과 의미

          이헌홍(Lee Heon-Hong) 한국문학회 2006 韓國文學論叢 Vol.42 No.-

          '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

            This paper is designed to pursue the implications of essay writings portraying the lives of the Korean residents in Japan as well as the types of essays representing their lifestyles. Those essays on ethnic Koreans" lives in Japan are examined greatly through three different categorizations in terms of their respective representation and implication of the ethnic Koreans" life patterns, i.e. the life as a migrant and his/her nostalgic sentiment, the quest for his/her identity and the recognition of Japan as an existential being, and the realization of problems with homeland and his/her own will of the resolution.   First, the essays on those ethnic Koreans" migratory experiences strongly tingle with painful and endless nostalgia, not only of abductees with bitter lives but of those who voluntarily emigrated to Japan to escape from the exploitative reality in their native country. For them, home country served as the source of hope that enables them to stand against their difficulties. They bore their adversities with the only hope that they could return home someday, yearning more for home as their lives get harder. On this aspect, home is often portrayed not as a real picture of the life itself, but as a beautiful representation of their memory such as fragmentary but romantic picture. Ironically, however, the sense of loss sometimes transforms itself into the image of a desperate willingness for survival that they have no choice but to survive in Japan.   Second, the matter of identity that appears in the ethnic Korean"s essays is two-faceted. One is a contention that any korean descendent should be aware of the identity as Korean. These types of essays occasionally assume that both an attitude toward criticism and rejection of speech and action fail to show the identity. In other cases, they worry too much about an unanswerable problem of choosing between national awareness and realistic limitations to seize themselves with a great pity. The other is a concern with the process of an active quest for identity. While the essays mentioned above represent the mental superiority of Korean language and its traditional culture, these essays function both as an important clue to find their identity and a precious connector of them and their home country, and them and their family. They acknowledge that they are so-called "Korean-Japanese, who belong neither under Koreans nor Japanese; they exist "between" the two. This "between" is not a passive retreat, but an active boundary with its own value at a place rather than Korea or Japan.   Finally, the author will illustrate the remainder of essays mentioned earlier in this paper which was not discussed in detail. Those essays are works of the ethnic Koreans" active effort to break the fetters of the division in their native country and its political problems beyond the struggling issue of survival and discrimination they face in Japan. Though, further discussion on these essays will be presented on next dissertation.

        • KCI등재

          재일한인 소설에서의 혼인, 그 갈등과 거리 혹은 소외

          이헌홍(Lee Heon-Hong) 부산대학교 한국민족문화연구소 2011 한국민족문화 Vol.39 No.-

          이 논문은 혼인을 중심축으로 이야기가 전개되는 재일한인 소설을 대상으로 하여 세대간의 갈등과 거리 혹은 소외의 현실을 살펴본 것이다. 논의 된 내용을 아래와 같이 요약한다. 첫째, 박중호가 지은 〈울타리 밖으로〉에서 그리고 있는 혼인과 그에 수반되는 제반 갈등은 개인적 가정의 문제를 넘어 재일한인 일반에게 닥쳐오고 있는 민족사적 차원의 문제로 귀결된다. 즉, 재일 1ㆍ2세대가 유지해 온 민족의 혈연적, 문화적 정체성을 고수할 것인가, 아니면 어차피 일본 땅에서 일본인과 함께 살아갈 수밖에 없는 정주화의 현실에서 서로를 받아들여 함께 섞어가면서 살아갈 것인가의 문제이다. 여기서 우리는 재일한인의 혼인이 안고 있는 현실적 갈등은 물론 그 고뇌마저도 되새겨야 할 필요가 있지 않을까 한다. 둘째, 조남두의 〈타향에서 생각하는 고향〉은 혼인을 매개로 펼쳐지는 재일한인의 세대교체와 그에 따른 갈등은 물론, 구세대가 소외되는 현실까지를 핍진하게 그려내고 있다. 이 경우의 세대교체는 주류 세대의 바뀜에 따른 신ㆍ구세대의 삶의 방식이나 가치관의 교체가 더 큰 문제로 부각된다. 따라서 우리는 이 작품에 나타난 구세대의 소외 현실을 통해 재일한인의 미래상은 물론, 그들의 정체성 문제가 어떤 모습으로 자리 잡아 갈 수 있을 것인가에 대한 관심의 폭과 깊이를 더해 가는 계기를 마련해야 할 것이다. 셋째, 김길호의 〈결혼행진곡〉에서 우리는 일본 사회의 주류에서 배제된 재일한인이 소수자로서 소외받는 현실과 함께, 소수자 집단 내에서도 갖춘 계층에 의해 못 갖춘 계층이 겪는 또 다른 소외의 모습을 찾을 수 있다. 이처럼 같은 재일이라도 상이한 능력과 조건을 갖추었기에, 일본인과 대등한 위치에 오른 사람과 그렇지 못한 사람과의 사이에는 또 다른 차별이 있고, 그로 인해 소외받기 십상인 당사자가 엄연히 존재하고 있는 현실을 우리는 이 작품을 통해 바라볼 수 있지 않을까 한다. 위의 논의를 통해 필자는 혼인이 갖는 개인적, 가정적 의미는 물론, 그 사회적 의미와 가치까지도 아울러 탐색할 수 있을 것이라 생각한다. 앞으로 보다 많은 작품을 대상으로 논의가 확대, 진전되기를 기대한다. With novels by ethnic Koreans in Japan that unfold centering around marriage, the author examined the reality of conflict, distance or alienation between generations. The discussion above is summarized as follows. First, marriage and its attendant conflicts, depicted by 『Out of the Fence』by Bak, Jungho, come down to the problem of ethnohistorical dimension that is being confronted by the whole ethnic Koreans beyond an individual family. In other words, it is the problem of whether to hold to the ethnic, cultural identity that the ethnic Koreans of the first and second generation have stuck to, or to live together in the reality of settlement that makes ethnic Koreans in Japan have no choice but to mix with Japanese At this point, we need to think over the realistic conflict, and even the agony, that ethnic Koreans' marriage have. Second, 『Hometown Thought away from Home』by Cho, Namho, gives a true-to-life description not only of a generational shift of the ethnic Koreans in Japan and its attendant conflict that develops through marriages, but of the reality of the alienation of the older generation as well. The generational shift in this case characterizes as more of a problem a shift in the lifestyle or values of the older generation and the younger generation with a dominant generation changing. Through the reality of the alienation of the older generation, therefore, we need to pay wider and deeper attention to what the future image of the ethnic Koreans in Japan will be and what change their identity will undergo. Third, 『Wedding March』by Kim, Gilho depicts one kind of alienation that ethnic Koreans in Japan excluded from the mainstream of the Japanese society face as a minor and another kind of alienation that within the minor group the underprivileged get from the privileged. This work ene les us to see the reality that among the ethnic Koreans there is another get rimiminor group thea mse who hadegech abilinoes and condinoons that they got even with Japanese and thmse who did not and that ther thmes exist a party vulnerable to alienation. The marriage in the novels develops centering around the stories involved in a series of procedures and rituals for marriage, marital relations as its extension, couple-oriented family life and so on. Therefore, it is considered that through these works we can see not only the individual or domestic meanings and values of marriage but also the social ones. Hopefully there will be more discussion with more works from a wide perspective like this.

        • KCI등재

          재일 한인마을 이야기의 두 모습

          이헌홍(Lee Heon-Hong) 부산대학교 한국민족문화연구소 2008 한국민족문화 Vol.32 No.-

          A Korean village in Japan is a physical space. So 'a story of a Korean village' does not necessarily have a directly corresponding relationship to 'a Korean village. As it were, 〈A Korean Neighbourhood〉 can have a story similar to that of 〈Hirakwon〉, and the opposite is also possible. Seeing that a viewpoint is selected and a story is constructed according to an author's view, by chance, one of these two stories is about what happened in and around a Korean village in Kanto, while the other is about what happened at its counterpart in Kansei. Therefore, the author thinks that it is possible to present these two stories of a village as a representative story of a Korean village in Japan beyond the constraints of the physical space. The former lays emphasis on a life devoted to the political ideology of North Korea, and the latter depicts the conflict, of the ethnic Koreans of the second, third and fourth generation who agonize over their identity, along with a critical view of the political situation of South Korea. The author avoids the trouble to sum up this by an item, and instead makes a conclusion with the following suggestions. First, let the author begin with 〈A Korean Neighborhood〉 that depicts the defence of ideology as a citizen of the republic or its promulgation activities. It seems that seen in this work collection could be positive meanings including the promotion of pride of citizens of the republic(North Korea) abroad, a strife for restoring rights, merits of defending Korean language and culture. However, a undeniable reality is that the ideology is in a way misled into doctrinairian idol worship. It is thought that now is time to try to create works that from a multi-cultural viewpoint of global age depict ethnic Koreans' mutual understanding and cooperation beyond a particular ideology. Then, works by ethnic Koreans in Japan, which depict an interest in politics in Korea, are all based on critical consciousness. Such a critical consciousness could be given credit of contributing to revealing the long-term seizure of power and dictatorship of a particular political group and their bad effects. However, it is hard to find works criticizing the political situation in North Korea that keeps its hereditary regime much more dictatorial. The author is afraid that it is because he is ill-informed, but there is something doubtful about this matter. Besides, we are looking forward to seeing works that truly understands the confused identity of ethnic Koreans of the new generation and helps try to find a way to solve it. Having such wishes fulfilled is a more important task.

        • KCI등재

          <옥중금낭>과 <정수경전>

          이헌홍(Lee Heon-hong) 어문연구학회 2003 어문연구 Vol.41 No.-

          '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

          Okjungkeumnang is a new style novel adapted from the Korean classical novel, Jeongsookyeongjeon. As a result of comparison of these two novels, it is found that only 35% of the outlines of both novels is different and the other part is almost the same. However, the concrete shapes of two novels are quite different. The characteristics of the adapted novel are as follows; the extension of dialogic statement. the concrete establishment of text internal space, the descriptive statement. the inner description of characters and the enlarged role of sub-characters, the sectional story of life rather than lifetime story, the appearance of new civilization, the immaturity of enlightened thematic concept. With these many different characteristics, Okjungkeumnang is obviously not a classical novel but an adapted new style novel. Since Okjungkeumnang is an adapted novel of Jeongsookyoongjeon, it has both the newly changed shape and the succeeded shape of a classical novel. Jeongsookyoongjeon is a novel which has been circulated as a written copy since 19th century. As Okjungkeumnang coexisted with the original Jeongsookyeongjeon as a written copy and a printed copy in the same era between 1910 and 1920 and it was read and circulated far and widely, it seems that the detailed contents of both novels are similar each other. In this respect, it is necessary that the deepened study and evaluation of the adapted work be followed. The main point of this study is that Okjungkeumnang should be understood and evaluated as an independent new style novel.

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