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      • KCI등재

        독일아동의 초기 논항구조발달

        이해욱 한국독어학회 2020 독어학 Vol.41 No.-

        In der vorliegenden Arbeit wurden Phänomene der Entwicklung von frühen Argumentstrukturen bei den deutschen Kindern untersucht. Insgesamt wurden zwei deutsche Kinder (Kerstin, Simone) im Alter von 22 Monaten bis 36 Monaten getestet. Erst mit knapp 22 Monaten finden sich erste Belege mit Besetzung von Subjekt und Objekt. Die mit Abstand häufigste Form ist die Objekt-V, in der Regel ohne weitere Argumente gebraucht, ab 29 Monate jedoch auch in Kombination mit Subjekt-V(SV), Objekt-V(OV) aber seltener V-Objekt(VO). Die Funktion istvor allem die einer Bitte oder einer Aufforderung. Im Alter von 3 Jahren scheinen die Kinder die SVO, SVOL, SV, SVL und SVOO-Konstruktionen zu beherrschen. Korpusanalysen zeigen außerdem, dass man bei vielen Konstruktionen schiefe Verteilungen findet, einzelne oder wenige Verben z.B. einen überproportional hohen Anteil der tokens dieser Struktur repräsentieren. Verben wie haben, machen, holen werden als transitive Konstruktion, Verben wie kommen, fahren als intransitive Konstruktion, ditransitive Verben wie geben, holen als Doppel-Objekt-Konstruktion (VOO: ‘ich hole dem Tommy ’n Kuchen.’) und Verben wie stellen, legen als Objekt und lokativer PP (VOL: ‘Ich stell’s mal auf ‘n Boden.’) verwendet. Die Untersuchung hat gezeigt, dass der Konstruktionserwerb auf Basis des Inputs und mit Hilfe allgemeiner sozio-kognitiver Lernmechanismen erfolgt. Somit gehe ich schließlich davon aus, dass der Input, den die Kinder bekommen, eine wichtige Rolle beim Spracherwerb spielt. 본 연구에서는 초기에 사용하는 동사와 그 기능적 발달에서 언어입력의 역할과 이러한 결과가 언어습득과정에서 갖는 시사점을 논의하고 있다. 동사는 다른 어휘들의 개념적 역할을 규정해 주고, 문장을 구성하는 틀이 되기 때문에 언어발달에서 중요한 역할을 한다. 따라서 동사의 의미적인 특징과 통사적인 특징을 함께 나타내주는 논항구조에 대한 연구는 언어습득 분야에서 여전히 활발하게 진행되고 있다. 본 연구에서는 독일아동의 논항구조발달을 알아보기 위해 이들의 발화자료에서 동사(타동사, 자동사) 및 그의 핵심논항을 포함하는 동사구문들을 조사하였다. 특히 아이들이 동사를 사용할 때 특정 통사구문을 더 빈번하게 사용하고 있는지를 알아보기 위해 22개월~36개월의 독일아동 두 명과 이들 보호자의 발화를 분석대상으로 삼았다. 연구결과, 아이들은 동사 haben, machen, holen을 타동사구문으로, 동사 kommen, fahren, runterfallen, spielen은 자동사구문으로 빈번하게 사용하였다.36개월에는 동사 geben을 이중 목적어구문으로 사용하기 시작했다. 종합적으로,조사한 아동들의 초기 발화자료를 보면 특정동사가 특정구문과 자주 나타나는 것을 알 수 있으며,이는 보호자 발화에서도 비슷한 양상을 관찰할 수 있었다. 이러한 결과와 관련하여 아동의 초기 논항구조발달에서 언어입력의 역할과 노출되는 빈도수는 언어습득 과정에서 매우 중요하다고 판단된다.

      • KCI등재

        초기 독일아동의 선호 논항구조

        이해욱 한국독어학회 2009 독어학 Vol.20 No.-

        The present paper is concerned with the distribution of arguments across grammatical roles with respect to their referential forms and degree of recency of mention in spontaneous speech data from two German children aged 1;10, 2;5 and 3;0. The investigation aims to show how these children uniformly follow the statistical patterns of Preferred Argument Structure described by Du Bois (1987, 2003). Each main clause having an overt verb that was used correctly with respect to transitivity has been included in the analysis. The core arguments (i.e. subject and for transitive verbs, direct object) of each of these verbs are coded ‘equational’, with core argument Se; ‘existential’, with core argument Sx; other intransitive, with core argument Si; and transitive, with core arguments A and O. The data included a total of 605 clauses, of which 50% were transitive, 7% equational, 11% existential, and 32% other intransitive. Three types of referential forms are distinguished: ellipsis, pronouns, and lexical noun phrases. All core arguments in the data that were codable as bearing A, O, or S grammatical roles have been included in the analysis. Any referent that was not mentioned previously during the recording session is coded as new. Du Bois’s ‘One Lexical Argument Constraint’ is supported in German child language, in that only 0,2% of all clauses have two lexical arguments. The ‘One New Argument Constraint’ is also supported by German data. 0% of all clauses have two new arguments. The German data is consistent with the pattern suggested by other languages (Inuktitut child data 0,04%, 0% for Sakapulteko data (Allen&Schröder 2003:313)). Du Bois’s ‘Non-Lexical A Constraint’ is supported by German child data since only 1% of all arguments in the A role are lexical. We turn finally to the ‘Given A Constraint’,which is also supported by German child data since only 2% of arguments in A position represent new referents. In sum, a fundamental relationship between referential form and information status is clearly evident in speech of these German children, and is clearly linked to grammatical role. Thus the two German children in this study exhibit Preferred argument Structure at a very early stage of acquisition. The data presented here add information to the growing body of research on Preferred Argument Structure in early child language.

      • TEOS-PDMS 혼성겔의 특성

        이해욱 가야대학교 1998 가야대학교 논문집 Vol.7 No.-

        졸겔법을 이용하여 TEOS에 유기 고분자 PDMS를 도입하여 유기-무기 혼성졸을 제조하였으며, 금속기판에 딥코팅법으로 막을 제조하여 표면 부식 방지막으로서의 가능성을 살펴보았다. 혼성졸의 졸겔 반응은 무기 올리고머를 형성하는 자체중합단계, 올리고머들에 유기 폴리머가 결합되는 복합중합단계, 망목의 성장이 일어나는 겔화 단계의 세 단계를 거쳐 반응이 진행되었다. TEOS-PDMS 이성분계 혼성졸로 복합체를 제조할 경우, 내산성, 내염기성 등 우수한 내화학성과 PDMS 사슬의 코일링으로 인한 유연성을 보였으나 PDMS 사슬내의 많은 소수성 메틸기와 졸내의 친수성 수산화기가 반발력을 일으켜 균일한 막을 얻을 수 없었다. The organic-inorganic hybrid sol was prepared by introducing organic polymer PDMS into TEOS network with sol-gel process. The sol was coated on metal surface to find possibility to anti-corrosive application by dipping method. The reaction of hybrid sol was proceeded through three steps, self-condensation forming inorganic oligomers, co-condensation of PDMS bridging to oligomers, and gelation growing network. TEOS-PDMS hybrid gel showed good resistivity to acid and base, and good reflexibility by coiling PDMS chain. But the homogeneous coating cannot be obtained because of repulsive force between methyl groups in PDMS chain and hydroxyl groups in the sol.

      • TEOS-MTMS-PDMS 혼성 코팅막의 금속 부식방지 특성

        이해욱,김홍준 가야대학교 2000 가야대학교 논문집 Vol.9 No.-

        졸겔법으로 제조한 TEOS-MTMS-PDMS 혼성졸을 금속기판에 딥코팅법으로 혼성막을 제조하였다. Coupling agent로서 MTMS를 사용하여 친수/소수 반발력으로 인한 막의 불균질화를 방지함으로서 표면부식 방지막으로서의 가능성을 살펴보았다. TEOS-MTMS-PDMS 혼성졸에서 MTMS는 한 분자 내에 친수성의 수산화기와 소수성의 메틸기를 동시에 가지고 있어 두 이질적인 성질을 극복할 수 있었고, 이 경우 PDMS의 메틸기 수와 MTMS의 메틸기 수의 비가 1인 부근에서 균일한 막을 얻을 수 있었다. 제조된 막은 우수한 내산성을 보였을 뿐만 아니라 많은 소수성 메틸기로 인하여 내염기성과 내수성이 우수하였다. 또한 금속표면에 입혀진 막은 PDMS 사슬의 코일링으로 금속의 변형과 열팽창에 견딜 수 있는 유연성을 보였다. The hybrid films were prepared by dipping the metal substrates into the TEOS-MTMS-PDMS hybrid sol using sol-gel process. The possibility was investigated to the anticorrosive hybrid films by preventing the inhomogeneity of hybrid sol as using MTMS. Because MTMS has -OH and -CH3 group in one molecule, two opposite properties were overcome in the TEOS-MTMS-PDMS hybrid sol. In this case, the homogeneous coating can be prepared with TEOS-MTMS-PDMS hybrid sol using MTMS as a precursor, when -CH3(MTMS)/-CH3(PDMS) ratio was about 1. The hybrid coatings had good resistivity to base and water as well as acid, resulting from hydrophobic methyl group. The coatings on metal surface showed flexibility against deformation and thermal expansion of metal.

      • KCI등재

        초기 한국아동의 주제발달에 관한 연구

        이해욱 한국독어독문학회 2008 獨逸文學 Vol.49 No.4

        This paper examined the development of topic marking expressions during the 3-month period from 2;0 to 2;3 in the CHILDES data, Jiwon. Her data was then compared with other 6 Korean children in different ages. In order to learn the topic device in Korean, the children has first to master the linguistic information sources such as ‘zero anaphora’, ‘morphological marking -nun’, and word order (sentence-initial), second, non-linguistic sources such as contrastiveness, and given-new dichotomy, and world knowledge. The present study found that the three topic expressions (null topic, zero marked overt topic, ‘nun’-marked overt topic) produced by Jiwon have different distributions with respect to discourse variables, indicating that each option has different discourse functions. The most common form was null topics and apparently are learned very early. Jiwon strongly differentiate between null topics and overt topics from the beginning of the study. She used null topics most frequently in certain context, such as prior mention. In case of contrast she clearly used the overt topics. This tendency was also revealed in the data of other children. In case of the use of topic marking expressions, the subject null topics found to be the predominant form across all age groups. She used the overt topics with ‘nun’ extremely frequently for nouns and pronouns, while the overt topics without ‘nun’ were almost nouns. Jiwon used the three topic expressions mostly in old information when the referent had been mentioned in the discourse, when the referent is being mentioned for the first time in the discourse, she used mostly overt topics without ‘nun’, primarily in contrastive meaning. The present study found that topic prominence seems to be supported by Korean child data, as in other previous studies (Clancy 1997, Hakuta 1982, Lee& Cho in press) and suggest that development reflects sensitivity to topicality at around two years. This paper examined the development of topic marking expressions during the 3-month period from 2;0 to 2;3 in the CHILDES data, Jiwon. Her data was then compared with other 6 Korean children in different ages. In order to learn the topic device in Korean, the children has first to master the linguistic information sources such as ‘zero anaphora’, ‘morphological marking -nun’, and word order (sentence-initial), second, non-linguistic sources such as contrastiveness, and given-new dichotomy, and world knowledge. The present study found that the three topic expressions (null topic, zero marked overt topic, ‘nun’-marked overt topic) produced by Jiwon have different distributions with respect to discourse variables, indicating that each option has different discourse functions. The most common form was null topics and apparently are learned very early. Jiwon strongly differentiate between null topics and overt topics from the beginning of the study. She used null topics most frequently in certain context, such as prior mention. In case of contrast she clearly used the overt topics. This tendency was also revealed in the data of other children. In case of the use of topic marking expressions, the subject null topics found to be the predominant form across all age groups. She used the overt topics with ‘nun’ extremely frequently for nouns and pronouns, while the overt topics without ‘nun’ were almost nouns. Jiwon used the three topic expressions mostly in old information when the referent had been mentioned in the discourse, when the referent is being mentioned for the first time in the discourse, she used mostly overt topics without ‘nun’, primarily in contrastive meaning. The present study found that topic prominence seems to be supported by Korean child data, as in other previous studies (Clancy 1997, Hakuta 1982, Lee& Cho in press) and suggest that development reflects sensitivity to topicality at around two years.

      • KCI등재

        입력 빈도 분포 유형이 독일어 문법 학습에 미치는 영향 - 독일어 현재완료 구문과 부가어적 형용사 구문을 중심으로

        이해욱 한국독어학회 2019 독어학 Vol.39 No.-

        Etwa Mitte der 1990er Jahre hat sich der Ansatz der Konstruktion als Form-Funktionseinheit und als wichtiger Teil einer gebrauchsbasierten Theorie herausgebildet, um den Spracherwerb zu beschreiben und zu erklären. Der Terminus Konstruktion ruft einerseits Annahme hervor, dass Konstruktionen die grundlegenden Einheiten in Sprachbeschreibung, Sprachverarbeitung und Erwerb darstellen. Andererseits verweist der Terminus auf Annahme, dass sprachliches Wissen nach und nach in der Auseinandersetzung mit dem Input konstruiert wird(Goldberg 2003). Gebrauchsbasierte Ansätze gehen davon aus, dass ein Hauptanteil des Spracherwerbs implizit und inzidentell erfolgt und als graduelle Abstraktion von sprachlichen Mustern aus dem Input zu beschreiben ist(Ellis 2003). Dadurch wird das Anbieten eines reichhaltigen Inputs als potenzielle Datenbasis für die Abstraktion zur zentralen Aufgabe für Sprachlehrende. Daher soll der Input viele Zielstrukturen und gut ausgewählte Zielstrukturen in einer gut überlegten Verteilung enthalten. Input mit schiefen Typ-Token-Verteilungen(skewed input), in dem ein zentraler Vertreter überproportional häufig vorkommt, wurde als grundlegende Voraussetzung für erfolgreiche Kategorisierung im L1- und L2-Erwerb dargestellt. Bezogen auf den L1-Erwerb zeigen Goldberg/Casenhiser/Sethuraman(2004), dass der natürliche Input von Kindern für alle untersuchten Konstruktionen schiefe Verteilungen zugunsten eines zentralen Vertreters aufweist. Eine L2-Studie von Year/Gordon(2009) zeigt allerdings kein besseres Lernen (der englischen Ditransitivkonstruktion) aus Input mit schiefen Typ-Token-Verteilungen. Die vorliegende Arbeit versucht theoretische Annahmen aus gebrauchsbasierten Modellen mit empirischen Befunden zu verbinden. Der Beitrag untersucht, ob deutsche Lerner des Koreanischen die Perfekt- und die attributive Adjektiv-Konstruktion aus schief verteiltem Input besser und schneller lernen als aus gleichverteiltem Input. Für die Untersuchung wurden insgesamt 33 deutsche Lerner des Koreanischen in zwei unterschiedlichen Gruppen (A: skewed Gruppe; B: balanced Gruppe) getestet. Dabei wurden zwei unterschiedliche Inputtexte (A: Text mit skewed Verteilung; B: Text mit balanced Verteilung) verwendet. Die empirische Untersuchung hat ergeben, dass Input mit einer hohen Anzahl von Zielstrukturen und schief verteilten Typ-Token-Verhältnissen ein hohes Erwerbspotenzial bietet. In der vorliegenden Arbeit hat man festgestellt, dass eine konsequente Erhöhung der Inputmenge durch gezielte Inputanreicherungen, also Inputfluten im Lesetraining, durchaus erwerbsfördernd wirken kann. [ 본 실험은 한국 성인 독일어 학습자를 대상으로 문법학습에서 입력 분포 유형(편중분포, 균형분포)의 효과 차이를 확인하기 위해 고안되었다. 이와 더불어 입력동사의 전형성이 구문습득에 영향을 미치는지 살펴보고자 하였다. 연구실행을 위해 부산 소재 OO대학교 기초독일어회화 수강생 33명을 연구 참가자로 선정하고, 실험을 위해 두 개의 실험 집단(편중분포 집단, 균형분포 집단)으로 분류, 배정하였다. 본 연구의 목표구문인 현재완료 구문과 부가어적 형용사 구문의 학습을 위해 연구 참가자의 수준을 고려한 구문과 동사를 선정하고, 각 집단별 조건에 맞는 텍스트 자료를 선택, 제작하여 실시하였다. 연구결과, 독일어 학습자들이 현재완료 구문과 부가어적 형용사 구문을 학습하는데 있어서 입력분포유형이 학습효과의 차이를 야기할 수 있음을 확인할 수 있었다. 특히 전형적인 예의 빈도를 높여서 제시한 편향분포에서 균형분포보다 학습효과가 더 좋았다는 사실을 알 수 있었다. 이에 따라 교수자는학습자와 학습 목표구문의 특성을 고려한 효과적인 입력방안을 모색하여 ‘최적화된 입력’을 제공함으로써 학습자들의 보다 성공적인 언어학습을 촉진시킬 수 있을 것으로 본다.

      • SCOPUSKCI등재

        졸겔법에 의한 알루미나의 제조(II) : 중합졸로부터 제조한 분말의 특성

        이해욱,김창은,김구대,정형진 한국세라믹학회 1991 한국세라믹학회지 Vol.28 No.9

        Alumina precursor sol was obtained by the reaction of Al(OC4H9)3 and acetylacetone in the solvent followed by the partial hydrolysis. This sol was measured by viscosity and the effect of pH. The powders obtained from this sol were calcined at the various temperatures. The transition of crystals and crystal state were investigated at the various temperatures. The powders dried at 90$^{\circ}C$ showed amorphous and ${\gamma}$-Al2O3 at 900$^{\circ}C$, ${\alpha}$-Al2O3 mono-phase at 1050$^{\circ}C$ respectively. As a result of Al27-MASNMR analysis, amorphous and ${\alpha}$-Al2O3 powders showed 6-coordinated Al, ${\gamma}$-Al2O3 4-coordinated Al respectively.

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