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        효율적인 얼굴 검출을 위한 지역적 켄텍스트 기반의 특징 추출

        이필규,서영철,신학철,심연,Rhee, Phill-Kyu,Xu, Yong Zhe,Shin, Hak-Chul,Shen, Yan 한국인터넷방송통신학회 2011 한국인터넷방송통신학회 논문지 Vol.11 No.1

        Recently, the surveillance system is highly being attention. Various Technologies as detecting object from image than determining and recognizing if the object are person are universally being used. Therefore, In this paper shows detecting on this kind of object and local context based facial feather detection algorithm is being advocated. Detect using Gabor Bunch in the same time Bayesian detection method for revision to find feather point is being described. The entire system to search for object area from image, context-based face detection, feature extraction methods applied to improve the performance of the system. 최근들어 영상보안 시스템에 관한 관심이 높아지고 있다. 영상으로부터 객체를 검출하고, 객체가 사람인지를 판별하며, 인식하는 기술이 다방면으로 활용되고 있다. 따라서 본 논문에서는 이러한 객체를 검색하기 위한 적응적인 방법을 제안하며, 이를 위하여 지역적 컨텍스트 기반의 얼굴 특징 검출 방법을 제안한다. 가보 번치를 이용하여 검출하는 이와 함께 베이지안 검출 방법을 이용한 특징점 보정에 따른 특징 검색 방법을 설명한다. 전체적인 시스템은 영상에서 오브젝트 영역을 검색하고, 지역적 컨텍스트 기반의 얼굴 검출, 특징 추출 방법을 적용하여 시스템의 성능을 높인다.

      • 水稻作 肥料三要素 施用에 關한 經濟分析 : 特히 全南長城 和順地域 施肥量 決定을 위한 限界分析

        李弼圭 全南大學校 農漁村開發硏究所 1966 農業科學技術硏究 Vol.4 No.-

        It has almost passed half a century that we have introduced the chemical fertileizers, one of the most important factors in increasing agricultural productivity, into our agricultural production field. Because of the needs of increasing food productions as a result of the rapid growth of population a larder amount of chemical fertilizers has been used as well as the techniques of using it distinctly improved and was widely adopted among the farmers during the last decade. According to the statistical year book of the Ministry of Agriculture and forestry, the amount of fertilizers consumed in 1965 amounted to217,925M/T Nitropen, 123,480M/T phosphate and 51,684M/T Potassium respectively, so that the total amount of chemical fertilizers consumed reached at 393,098M/T Compnring this figures to that of 1976, the increased rate of fertilizer consumption shows 9% nitrogen,124% Phosphate and 629% potassium respectively. On the while if we figure out the status of fertilizers consumption of N.P.K, it shows us 96kg (56%),54kg(31%) and 23kg(13%) per nectar respectively. The research on the optimum application of chemical fertilizers economic analysis of input-output relation-will be necessary for the purpose of guiding farmers in their rational application of fertilizers and also necessary for the purpose of allocating imported fertilizers properly and for the reasonable control of domestic firtilizer production policy. Until now the technical study about the use of fertilizers from the side of botanical and soilogical has greatly been done, however, the economical study on tole rational utilization of fertilizers has scarcely been done. The allocation plan of fertilizers in different areas and various crofts or its fundamental data of policy always depend on experimental station data which are obtained under special conditions or circumstance where the conception of "marginality" of technical or economical efficiency of fertilizers resources use is almost neglected. In fact, the maximum limitation of managerial cost will be necessary to study in tile view that the greatest profit of individual economy can by obtained when the marginal revenue is equal to the marginal cost of production. In this regard we are new going to do economic analysis about the optimum application of fertilizers. I have derive a production surface function through exact marginal anayisis by means of exponential function form, at the same time I have intended to resolve the problem that we have discussd above, by using the fertilizer experimental data on rice production in Changsung area and Hwasoon area in Chonnam profvincial O.R.D. 2. PURPOSES OF THE STUDY 1) To find out the optimum allocation of three nutrients of fertilizers which will be consumed for the rice growing in two different areas : Changsung and Hwasoon, Chonnam Province . 2) To find out the optimum combinaction rate and the input level of the three nutrients of fertilizers corresponding to the priee change in rice and fertilizers, 3) To find out the relationship of substitution between nutrients and its economic 4) To find out the optimum amount of purchase and input of fertilizers in different areas in order to get maximized farm earnings under the conditions that the capital and fertilizers are limited in various level. 5) To show and develop the direction of applying the agricultural production economic theory in order to contribute the development of the local societies. 3. METHODS OF THE STUDY By applying the pricniple of agricultural preduction ecenomics how to increase the economic and technical efficiency of the fertilizer resources use. There are two kind of purposes or significant: In the view of individual farmers, to help to make their decision in increasing production and allocation their resources so as to get the maximized farm earning; in the view of society as a whole, it must be the one that the social or local resources should be used far the purpose of maximizing the earning of individual farm. In these two view of study as mentioned above, I have adopted the method with which determining the optimum combination rate of resourses, after I derived the rice production function y=f(N.P.K) or production surface function by exponential function with three nutrients fertilizers experimental data ans then predicted Product contor and isocline. I have also, predicted the marginality of optimum input level by predicting the marginal rate of substitution and iso-cost line. And I have chosen the method with which pursuit the rational allocation of fertilizer resources in different areas, and the marginal line of optimal input-output by introducing the Law of equi-marginal productivity and the theory of marginal efficiency of capital investment, And the readers must note thet this is no lass than a case study. 4. SOURCE OF THE DATA The data used in this study are the ones that were obtained from the three nutrient fertilizers experimentation on rice Production in Changsung: and Hwasoon areas, Chonnam province, by the cooperative study of the Chonnam Provincial 0.R.D. and UNKSOF in 1964. The plan and yield of this experiment are shown in table 2. We have found some problems in analysing the data, for there was some inevilable faults in their plan In this respect, I am afraid that the result of this study might be misused by some one else without any modification. This experiment has been performed on the paddy field of clay-loam in Changsung and loam in Hwasoon, of which former, field was one crop rice paddy field, the latter field was two crop paddy field of rice and naked barley, and adopted with Nongjim No.6 variety of rice crop recommended by Chonnam Provincal Office of Rural Development. Also the whole experiment field has been arranged by 24 unit plot, appling N1-5kg/10a, P1-3kg/10a, K1-3kg/10a, or N2-1Okg/l0a, Pa-6kg/10a, K2-6kg/10a, as shown in the Table 1, and methods of the experiment plan. Table 1. Experiment Plan and the Rice Yield(per10a) in Chonnam 5. DERIVATION OF RICE PRODUCTION FUNCTION Under talc given soil condition and the technical condition as we above mentioned, the exponential function derived from experimental data (see Table 1) of the three nutrients of fertilizers inputed as a variable factor, both Gun the average in both Gun area as follows: Changsung area y=275.96X1 0.1842 X2 0.0467 X3-00.0173 ‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥(1) Hwasoon area y=232.26X1 0.1260 X2 0.0483 X3-0.0598‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥(2) Average y= 304.47X1 0.1529 X2 0.9465 X3-0.0391 ‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥(3) note: y= Rice, Xl=Nitrgen, X2=P2O5, X3=K2O Table 2. Value of R2 for Three-variable Nutrients, Multiple Correlation Coefficient, Value of tfor Individual regression Coefficients and Significance Level for Rice Crops Regression Coefficients 1) When we are measuring the Coefficient of Production Elastlsity of Production Function form table(1)and table (2), the productive effect of potassium among the three nutrient of fertilizer shows minus value in both Changsung and Hwasoon areas, so that the significance level of crop regression confficients of potassium can not be acceptable even in the 0.05. On the other hand the significant level of Nitrogen highly comes to 0.01. And in the case of phosphate the significant level comes to 0.05 or more in average in both areas. In the total production index of exponential function of two factors, Nitrogen add phosphate, the elastisity coefficient of Changsung area shows 0.2309 and that of Hwasoon shows 0.1743, so that we can find out the fact that Changsung area needs more nitrogen and phosphate than Hwasoon area. The equation·of production function (1), (2) and (3) and table (2) are showing the relation of such aspects. 2) According to the principle in which the optimum input level of fertilizers in determined at the level Inhere the marginal product always must be equal to the factor/product price. 1 have calculated the marginal productivity of nitrogen and Phosphate. In table (3) and table (4), if the unit price of Nitrogen is less than about 7.2 times that of unhulled rice add less than about 3.7 times that of phosphate in might be favorable to consume more than 10kg N. and 6kg P2O5 Per 10a. 3) In this study we could find out that a higher input level of fertilizers will be available in Changsung comparing with it in Hwasoon area. The steeper slope of Production surface see Fig. 1 is showing the marginal product is comaralively large, we can here understand that even in the case of the exchanging rate of grain fertilizer is disadvantage for the farmers at the fertilizer allocation policy of government the influences upon the optimum input level will relatively be small. Fig. 1, Predicted Production Surface of Rice Yield in Chonnam Tabie 3. Kgs of Rice Per 10a Predicted by Exponential Function Table 4. Marginl Physical Product(Kgs)of N and P2O5 Predicted by Exponential Futction, upper Figure Nitrogen, Lower Figual Phosphate 6, RELALT10NSHIP OF SUBSTITUTI0N BETWEEN NITROGEN AND PHOSPHATE USED ON RICE CROP AND OPTIMUM COMBINAT10N OF FERTILIZER NUTRILIENTS FOR SPECIFIED PRICE RELATIONHSHIPS. In this experiment, practically saying, we have recognized the fact that the two different factors, nitrogen and phosphate have a substitution relationship in each other. Table 5 and Fig. (2) shows the isoproduct contours in different rates of substitution between two factors which can produce with rice constant at 350kg, 375kg, 400kg, 425kg, 450kg and 475kg Per 10a respectively. In Table (5) and Fig. (2), with rice indicated by y, nitrogen by X1, and phosphate by X2. the production function, product contour (with rice constant at figs of 6 levels per 10a), and marginal rate of substitution of phosphate for nitrogen are given by equations (3)*, (4) and (5) below. y=304.47X1 0.1529 X2 0.04 * It is the same equation with rice production function-equation (3) above mentioned. The differential value. of equation (4) to the X2 (P2 O5) is estimated as The predicted least cost combination. will be realized when the marginal rate of subtitu1ion is equal to the price ratio of two fertilizer elements (unit price of P2O5/unit price of Nitrogen). The K lines (straight lines) in Fig. 2, passing through the origin, denote that nurients are held in fixed ratios at higher fertilization levels. Changes in slopes or substitution rates on successive isoquants, in relation to needs for different nutrient ratios at varying yield levels, are measured at the point of intersection of the fixd ratio lines and the yield isoquants. If the slope of the isoquants were identical at all points where they are intersected by a fixed ratio line, the same fertilizer mix would be optimun for all yield levels. If the slope changes along a fixed ratio line, the nutrient ratio which is optimum for one yield level is not also optimum for another yield level. A concept with perhaps greater application and more fundamental importance than the fixed ratio line is the fertilizer yield isocline. An isocline map exists for every fertilizer production surface. An isocline is a line connecting all points of equal slopes or substitution rates on a family of isoquants. In other words, it connects all nutrient combinations which have the same substitution rates leer the various yield levels. There is a difierent isocline for each possible nutrient substitution rate. The next equation is the predicted one from various value of K, considering the equation (5) as a K and made a solution for X1 Consquently, the isocline is also an expansion path, showing the least-cost and highest-profit combination of nutrients to use as higher yield levels are attained under a given price ratio for nutrients. ,In other words, the points of inter-section of K lines and the iso-prodcut contours is just the least cost combination that we have discussed. Under the present price condition, the price ratio will be Px2/pyl=42/73≒0.575, for the prices of Nitrogen (X1) and phosphate (X2) per kilogram are 73 won and 42 respectively. As a result, when the iso-product contour is tangent on the line of K=0.575, the least cost combination of two factors, X1 and X2, is nitragen 1: phosphate 0.575, 7. OPTIMUM INPUT LEVEL UNDER LIMITED CAPITAL(OBTAINED BY PRODUCT10N EQUATI0N (3) IN, AVERAGE VALUE.) As seen in Fig. (3) there are various posible ways in factor combinations with certain amount of money, say 1,000won. In the case of farm operationg capital is limited, the optimum perchashed amount of N. and p. (Input level) can be predicted by the profit equation: π=Py Y-(PxiX4+T)‥‥‥‥‥‥(7) Note·: Py=rice price per kg Pxi = fertilizers price per kg T=fixed cost Equation (7) should be motifyed as equntion ‥‥‥‥(8) F=Py Y-(PxiXi+T)+λ(PxiXi-C)‥‥‥‥‥‥‥(8) note:λ=Lagrange's Multiplior C=Limited capital In the result of prediction using this equation (8), the optimum input levels of two factors, the combination ratio of nitrogeu and P2O5, are 2.25:1 in Changsung area and 1.51:1 in Hwasoon respectively, under such a condition as the operating capital is limited by 1,600 won. Consequently it is disireable that the Changsung area should use larger amount of fertilizer than Hwasoon area. The table (6) and (7) tell us such relationships. 8. PERTILIZER RESOURSES ALLOCATION AND MARGINAL EFFICIENCIES OF CAPITAL IN DIFFERENT AREA. In the case of soil production confficient is different in different area, if we want to maximize our farm earning we must allocate our farm operating capital and fertilizer resources in such a way that the marginal product of two factors should be equal in two different asea. When the farm operating capital is limited by 1,600 won per 10a(1 danbo). the marginal efficiencies of capital inputed in Changsung and Hwasoon were 2.26 and 2.2 respectively. so that the reasoaable capital allocation in Hwasoon was 1,200 won. When the allocated amount of fertilizer is limited by a given volume (say, N: 19,243kg, P2O5:9.822kg in each 20a) the equalized allocation of marginal production in two area will be: Xl.1+X2.1 =19.243kg Xl.2+X2.2= 9.822kg Note: X1.1=Nitrogen inputed per 10a in Changsung X2.1 =Nitrogen inputed per 10a in Hwasoon X1·2 = P2O5inputed per10a in Changung X2.2=P2O5 inputed Per 10a in Hwasoon M1=Margina1 productivity of nitrogen M2=Margina1 productivity of phosphate In this case, as we have seen the marginal produtivities of various kinds of fertilizers will be solved as follows: The marginal productivity of nitrogen M1=7.5kg The marginal productivity of phosphate M2=4.5kg In Changsung N:X1.1=11.428kg P2O5:X1.2=4.833kg In Hwasoon N: X2.1=7.815kg P: X2.2=4.989kg Consequentiy the allocation ratios of fertilizers were: Changsung Hwasoon=1:0.687kg in N, and Changsung: Hwasoon=1:0.032kg in P2O5 Thus the yields of rice resulted from the fertilizer resources allocation, as we have seen, are as follows: yl=765,23kg in Changsung and y2=465.22kg in Hwasoon respectively, so that the total comes to 930.5kg in, rice production. Otherwise, in the case of adopting the simple method of allocation (That is equal allocation only by the size of area) instead of using the allocation method that we hare discussed above, the yields of rice are: y1=451.62kg in Changsung and y2 =476.50kg Hwasoon, so that the total yield comes to 928.12kg. In this regards, it is great significant fact that if we allocate our limited resources into production according to the law of equilibrum marginal productivity we can get additional rice production by 0.25% without any additional input of capital and labor from each 10a (1 danbo) of pads land. 9. In short, I specially intended to emphasize that all kinds of policies related to the guidance of optimum application of fertilizers for farmers, to production or importation and its rational allocation in different areas, and to the effective allocation of farm operating capital should be determined by derivation of production function or prediction of coefficients of production function. Because, by doing this, the limited fertilizer resources and capital will be save as well as the economic efficiency and the agricultural productivity will be increased.

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