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Background Cardiovascular disease is becoming an important national health issue since its recent increase in incidence and mortality. The study was conducted to find out the prevalence of metabolic syndrome according to the clinical identification criteria by NCEP-ATP3 and Asia-Pacific criteria. Meterials & Methods: The subjects were 759 people -male 375 and female 384 after twenties age - who had undergone medical examinations at Korea Association of Health, Daejeon- Chungnam Branch. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was assessed as defined by the NCEP ATP3, while abdominal obesity was assessed according to the Asia-Pacific guidelines. Anthropometric variables and cardiovascular risk factors were measured, and Associated factors with metabolic syndroms was analyzed by logistic regression analysis. Results The prevalence of metabotic syndrome was 24.O% for male and 27.1% for female The high blood pressure was the highest prevalent risk factors of metabolic syndrome. In the age group of thirties, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was higher in men than in women, however it was significantly higher in women than in men in fifties and six ties. The metabolic syndrome was more prevalent in aged people over 50 years. and .significantly associated with BMI index(odds ratio 2.58 in male, 9.87 in female)Conclusions The prevalence of metabolic syndrome is over 20%.Early detection and intervention of risk factors by health examination and promotion are needed for prevention of metabolic syndrome.
In order to develop some indicies for the evaluation of village health worker's activities and to find out personal characteristics and other factors that affect the activities, an interview survey was conducted to thirty seven village health workers (VHW) in Sunwon, Naega and Bulun townships in Kangwha county, where the Community Health Project of Yonsei University, College of Medicine, has been implemented for the past ten years. In addition, daily activity records of the VHW's were also analyzed. The results are summarized below: First, meeting attendance rates, number of regular family visits, number of antenatal care visits and number of family planning visits were identified as the most meaningful criterion for the evaluation of the village health worker's activities. Second, personal factors that significantly affect the village health worker's activities were identified as age, educational background, living with in-laws, religion, presence of preschool child in the family, holding leader's position of village woman's association concurrently, and duration serving as a VHW. The more aged and the more educated VHWs were the more effective. Those VHWs who were living with in-laws, without preschool child in the family, holding the leader's position of the village woman's association, and the longer service duration were the more effective. Other factors that affect the VHW's activities were the number of households in the target village and the number of natural villages in the target villages. It showed that the smaller the size of number of households and natural villages, the higher the degrees of the effectiveness of the VHW.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the cumulative fatigue of trunk muscles and the period of recovery time during repetitive lifting and lowering task with two different frequencies(4 times/min and 6 times/ min). Eight healthy males with no prior history of LBD(low back disorders) volunteered for this study. Subjects had 2, 3, 4, and 5 minutes recovery time respectively while they were preforming the lifting and lowering task at 15% level of MVC. EMG signals from six trunk muscles were collected and the fatigue level was analyzed quantitatively. In results, the fatigue levels of LES(left elector spinae), RLD(right lattissimus dorsi), LLD(left lattissimus dorsi), RRA(right rectus abdominis) and LRA(left rectus abdominis) were recovered when 3 minutes recovery time was given at 4 times/min frequency. However, the fatgue level of RES(right elector spinae) was recovered when 4 minutes recovery was given. On the other hand, when 6 times/min frequency was used, the RLD, LLD, RRA and LRA were recovered at 5 minutes of recovery time. But for RES and LES, it took longer than 5 minutes to be recovered. This results can be applied to design the adequate length of recovery time to control the cumulative fatigue of trunk muscles in industry with repetitive lifting and lowering task.
Purpose:The aim of the present study was to evaluate the incidence of the second mesiobuccal (MB2) canal, root fusion, and C-shaped root canal configuration in the Korean maxillary first (MM1) and second (MM2) molars by analyzing cone-beam computed tomographic (CBCT) images. Materials and methods: Patients undergoing presurgical CBCT examination were included in the current study. The CBCT images of 1498 MM1 and 1742 MM2 from 1658 Korean patients were assessed to determine the incidence of a MB2 canal, the types of canal configurations, root fusion, and C-shaped root canal configurations. Further, the correlations between the incidence of MB2 canal and age, gender, and tooth position were analyzed. Results: The study population was relatively old (mean age: 66.1 years). The percentage of MB2 canals in MB roots was 60.1% and 28.0% in MM1 and MM2, respectively, with the most common configurations being Weine type III in MM1 and Weine type II in MM2. Additionally, the frequency of a MB2 canal decreased with age in both molars and was higher in men than in women in the MM1 only. Furthermore, root fusion was present in 2.3% and 26.2% of the MM1 and MM2, respectively, whereas C-shaped root canals were observed in 0.4% and 2.7% of the MM1 and MM2, respectively. Conclusion: The MB2 canal was found more frequently in the MM1, whereas root fusion and C-shaped root canals were both seen more frequently in the MM2. 목적: Cone-beam computed tomographic (CBCT)를 이용하여 한국인의 상악 제1대구치(MM1), 제2대구치(MM2)에서 제2근심협측(MB2) 근관, 치근 융합 및 C형 근관의 발생률에 대해 평가하였다. 재료 및 방법: 술 전 평가를 위해 CBCT 촬영을 한 환자를 선택했다. 1658명의 환자로부터 1498개의 MM1과 1742개의 MM2의 CBCT 영상이 획득되었고, MB2 근관, 치근융합 및 C형 근관을 분석했다. 연령, 성별 및 치아위치와 MB2 근관 발생률간의 관계도 조사하였다. 결과: 연구표본은 비교적 고령(평균연령: 66.1세)이었다. MB2 근관의 발생률은 MM1, MM2 각각 60.1%, 28.0% 였고, MM1, MM2에서 각각 Weine Type III, Type II가 우세했다. 연령이 증가함에 따라 MB2 근관은 감소하는 경향을 보였으며, MM1에서는 남성에서 MB2 근관이 더 많이 발견되었다. 치근융합은 MM1에서 2.3%, MM2에서 26.2%, C형 근관은 MM1에서 0.4%, MM2에서 2.7%로 모두 MM2에서 발생률이 더 높았다. 결론: MB2 근관은 MM2보다 MM1에서 더 발생률이 높았다. 치근융합과 C형 근관은 모두 MM2에서 더 발생률이 높았다.