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The goal of this study was to evaluate micro-bubble concentration () in water by air/water ratio (A/W ratio) with a micro-bubble generating pump. The estimation of micro-bubble concentration is based on the balance of inlet/outlet air and water flow rate. On net A/W ratio to be generated micro-bubble, we found that the obtained the are shown as a function of discharge pressure () of the micro-bubble generating pump. The correlation of the and the () was adequately described by the least square methods with a high correlation coefficient (r = 0.9459) and calculated values fit the experimental data quite well. The was lower than theoretical dissolved air concentration () calculated by Henry's law. The for being operated the micro-bubble generating pump was 6.75 – 39.53 mL/L, however, we found that the optimum of the to generate micro-bubble was the range from 10 to 12 mL/L.
Zeolite was synthesized from power station waste, coal fly ash, as an alternative low-cost adsorbent and investigated for the removal of Sr(II) and Cs(I) ions from single- and binary metal aqueous solutions. In order to investigate the adsorption characteristics, the effects of various operating parameters such as initial concentration of metal ions, contact time, and pH of the solutions were studied in a batch adsorption technique. The Langmuir model better fitted the adsorption isotherm data than the Freundlich model. The pseudo second-order model was found more applicable to describe the kinetics of system. The adsorption capacities of Sr(II) and Cs(I) ions obtained from the Langmuir model were 1.7848 mmol/g and 0.7640 mmol/g, respectively. Although the adsorption capacities of individual Sr(II) and Cs(I) ions was less in the binary-system, the sum of the total adsorption capacity (2.3572 mmol/g) of both ions in the binary-system was higher than the adsorption capacity of individual ion in the single-system. Comparing the homogeneous film diffusion model with the homogeneous particle diffusion model, the adsorption was mainly controlled by the particle diffusion process.
Dissolved oxygen is necessary for many biological processes as well as many industrial practices. Dissolved oxygen released from water in dissolved air flotation (DAF) systems can be have many different applications. However, DAF systems are very costly to operate. To develop more efficient DAF systems, a deeper understanding of the process of oxygen being released from water is required. In this study, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were used to simulate 100 oxygen molecules surrounded by 31002 water molecules at temperatures ranging from 0℃ to 100℃. Simulations were carried out for 10 ns, during which, in most cases, all the oxygen molecules were released from the water droplet. With MD simulations, visualization of the molecules escaping the water droplet was possible, which aided the understanding of the interactions between molecules at the nano-scale. The results showed that as the oxygen molecules moved near the edge of the water droplet that the oxygen molecules hesitated before escaping the water droplet or returned to the interior of the water droplet. This was because of the attractive forces between the water and oxygen molecules. Moreover, after most of the oxygen molecules were released from the droplet, some were found to return to the droplet's edge or even the interior of the droplet. It was also confirmed that oxygen molecules were released at a faster rate at higher temperatures.
Na-A zeolite (Z-Cl) was synthesized from coal fly ash, which is a byproduct of coal combustion for the generation of electricity. The adsorption of Cu2+ and Zn2+ions onto Z-C1 was investigated via batch tests over a range of temperatures (303.15 to 323.15 K). The resultant experimental equilibrium data were compared to theoretical values calculated using model equations. With these results, the kinetics and equilibrium parameters of adsorption were calculated using Lagergren and Langmuir-Freundlich models. The adsorption kinetics revealed that the pseudo second-order kinetic mechanism is predominant. The maximum adsorption capacity (qmax) values were 139.0-197.9 mg Zn2+/g and 75.0-105.1 mg Cu2+/g. Calculation of the thermodynamic properties revealed that the absorption reactions for both Cu2+and Zn2+ were spontaneous and endothermic. Collectively, these results suggest that the synthesized zeolite, Z-C1, can potentially be used as an adsorbent for metal ion recovery during the treatment of industrial wastewater at high temperatures
Coagulation, flocculation, and dissolved air flotation (DAF) experiments were performed with humic acid to evaluate the influence of operational conditions on removal efficiencies. We investigated coagulation, flocculation, and flotation conditions of humic acid removal using a laboratory-scale DAF system. This paper deals with coagulant type (aluminum sulfate and PSO-M) and the most relevant operational conditions (velocity gradients for coagulation and flocculation, retention time and recycle ratio and flotation time). Results showed that optimal conditions for removing humic acid, yielding CHA removal efficiencies of approximately 85 %, are a recycle ratio of 40 %, coagulant dosages of 0.15 – 0.20 gAl/gHA as aluminum sulfate and 0.03 – 0.12 gAl/gHA as PSO-M, coagulation(400s-1 and 60s), flocculation(60s-1 and 900s or more), and flotation(490 kPa or more and at least 10 min).
The study presents sewage sludge flotation and thickening efficiencies which changes chemical conditioning and mixing conditions using a flotation thickening system with a microbubble generating pump. Flotation and thickening of sewage sludge are shown to significantly influence kinds of coagulants more than Gt values. It is found that the flotation and thickening efficiencies for kinds of coagulants follows the order: Al2(SO4)3 < PSO-M < Fe2(SO4)3. We shows that the flotation thickening system(1.6 m3/d) could be continuously operated during two hours on operation conditions in the lab-scale experiments. Sludge thickening efficiency in the A/S ratio of 0.029 - 0.019 mL/mg was found to be very efficient, reaching to 300.0 ~ 335.7%. 본 연구는 미세기포 발생펌프가 장착된 하수슬러지 부상농축 장치를 이용하여 화학적인 개량 및 교반조건에 따른 하수슬러지 부상농축효율을 나타내었다. 하수슬러지의 부상농축은 Gt 값보다는 응집제 종류에 더 큰 영향을 받았다. 응집제 종류에 따른 하수슬러지 부상농축효율은 Al2(SO4)3 < PSO-M < Fe2(SO4)3 응집제 순으로 높게 나타났다. 회분식 실험에서 도출된 운전조건을 이용하여 1.6 m3/d 용량의 하수슬러지 부상농축장치를 2시간동안 연속적으로 운전할 수 있었으며, A/S 비가 0.029~0.019 mL/mg에서 슬러지 농축율은 300.0~335.7%로서 매우 효율적이었다.
The adsorption properties of Cs+ and Cu2+ ions were evaluated by using a polysulfone scoria zeolite (PSf-SZ) composite with synthetic zeolite synthesized from Jeju volcanic rocks (scoria). In order to investigate the adsorption properties, various parameters, such as pH, contact time, reaction rate, concentration, and temperature in aqueous solutions, were evaluated by tests carried out in batch experiments. The adsorption capacities of Cs+ and Cu2+ ions increased between pH 2 but achieved equilibrium at pH 4 and above. The adsorption rate increased rapidly up to the initial 24 h, after which it plateaued ; the adsorption rate then sustained at equilibrium from 48 h. The adsorption kinetics of Cs+ and Cu2+ ions were described better by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model than the pseudo-first-order kinetic model. The Langmuir model fitted the adsorption isotherm data better than the Freundlich model. The maximum adsorption capacities of Cs+ and Cu2+ ions obtained from the Langmuir model were 53.8 mg/g and 84.7 mg/g, respectively. The calculated thermodynamic parameters showed that the adsorption of Cs+ and Cu2+ ions on PSf-SZ was feasible, spontaneous and endothermic reaction.