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作为一部文学著作,语言显然是 『三国演义』的第一要素。本文是关于 『三国演义』语言的尝试性研究。小说的语言是由人物语言与叙述者语言共同构成的。小说中的人物语言是,人物本身的语言,即独白、内心独白以及呓语等的心理语言和人物相互间的对话。本文研究的对象是 『三国演义』人物语言之一的对话。它指的是小说中的人物之间,以语言交际活动为目的的话语句组(人物语言组)。本文立足于“对话开始时的对话参与人数”和“对话结束时的对话参与人数”的两个基本点,以及“对话断续”和“对话人数增减”的两个前提因素,来区分了 『三国演义』文本里的15种(若包括特殊类型则18种)对话类型。通过分析发现了 『三国演义』文本里的15种(若包括特殊类型则18种)类型的,总共3021个人物对话。此外,这些对话在 『三国演义』文本里不是一个个孤立的存在,而是互相作用、互相渗透,每一段的对话共同构成 『三国演义』文本里整体的对话。通过如此的叙述方式,圆满体现了长篇章回小说的有机体的叙述结构。总而言之,本文的主要研究方法是量化分析。通过准确的数据来分析了 『三国演义』文本中对话的类型和使用情况。笔者希望能以此填补“中国古典小说”研究中的一些空白之处。
Spontaneous bladder perforation is a very rare event. Prompt diagnosis of this injury is very important, particularly with intraperitoneal perforation, because mortality increases if surgical repair is delayed. Previous studies have reported that plain cystography is the primary modality of imaging study rather than relatively insensitive computed tomography (CT) when bladder perforation is suspected. We report here a rare case of spontaneous intraperitoneal perforation of the bladder associated with urothelial carcinoma with divergent histologic differentiation, as diagnosed with CT cystography.
<24 city> is a story about ‘factory 420'. The interviews of five real workers and four actors tell the fifty years of history of ‘factory 420' and China; it's deteriorating past due to the expeditious growth of economy, and rapidly changing present. In order to deliver the content in artistic presentation, Zhang-ke Jia introduces the narration style called, ‘Fake Documentary'. Even though Zhang-ke Jia has not mentioned, the traditional narration expressions are frequently used since the internalized traditional aesthetic habits are unwittingly shown in this film. Furthermore, this research concludes that the traditional narration style enhances the aesthetic achievement of the <24 city>.
The Studies of Language of Psychological State of The Dream of the Red Chamber Lee, Chi-han 『The dream of the Red chamber』 not only in its meaning and content, but also in its artistic way of expression, achieved immense success. Talking about the artistic value, the most important characteristic is that narrating and depicting reminds one of life itself, so abundant, profound, rich and true to life. Successfully applied "living" method of expression helped the novel to achieve great success. In fact, the critical acclaim awarded 『The dream of the Red chamber』 as the paradigm of Chinese classical novels can be traced back to Cao Xueqin's unparalleled success in using this method of writing.In this report, the main focus is on the characters' psychology, using "ravings", "monologue" and "inner monologue" foundation for numerous studies of the 『The dream of the Red chamber』's literal language."Monologue", "inner monologue" and "ravings" are means of building the novel's structure and revealing the essence of the characters' emotions. Thanks to the successfully use of various kinds of the language of psychological state expression and its numerous functions, this novel has achieved the artistic success which it had never achieved before.
한류를 바라보는 두 개의 시선이 있다. 한국 문화산업의 성공신화로서 한류와 중국 문화안 보의 대상으로서 한류이다. 그리고 우리가 외면해 왔던 사실, 이 두 개의 시선은 반비례 관계 의 함수이다. 2016년 한국 내 사드배치 결정으로 촉발된 중국정부의 비공식적인 한류 규제정책 ‘한한령(限韓令)'은 1990년대 후반부터 중국정부의 한류에 대한 일관된 인식을 압축적으로 보여준다. 우리 문화산업의 성공신화인 한류는 중국 문화안보의 대상이었다. 중국의 문화안보 에는 타국 문화산업에 대한 ‘방어'와 중국문화산업의 대외적 ‘확산'이라는 두 측면이 있다. 이를 통해 한류는 중국정부에 의해 서구문화 확산에 대한 방어기제로 수용되었으며, 중국문화 산업의 대외적 확산을 위한 가이드 역할까지만 허용된 것이었다. 이처럼 우리 문화산업 성공 신화에 적혀 있지 않은 중국 문화안보의 시선을 전제하여야만, 단순 소비자에서 자본의 투자 자로, 그리고 통제자로서 한한령을 발동한 중국을 이해할 수 있다. 그리고 이것이 바로 한류의 지속성장을 위한 탐색의 첫걸음이다. There are two views on the Korean Wave: One is the Korean Wave as a success story of the Korean cultural industry and the other is the Korean Wave as a subject of Chinese cultural security. And the fact that we have turned away, these two views are a function of the inverse relationship. In 2016, since South Korea and the US government decided to deploy the THAAD in Korea, the Chinese government's unofficial ‘Hallyu regulatory policy(限韓令)' began. This shows the Chinese government's consistent position on the Korean wave since the late 1990s. The Korean Wave is a success story of our cultural industry and the theme of Chinese cultural security. Chinese cultural security has two aspects: the “defense” of other cultural industries and the “expansion” of Chinese cultural industries. The Korean Wave was accepted as a defense of the spread of Western culture in China and allowed it to play a role in helping the Chinese cultural industry to spread abroad. In order to understand why the Chinese government start ‘Hallyu regulatory policy(限韓令)', we have to learn about the view of Chinese cultural security. China has transformed from a simple consumer to a capital investor of the Korean wave and has become a its controller. This is the first step in exploring the sustainable development of the Korean Wave.
The historical narrative prose, as well as Chinese classical novels which were under the direct influence of oral literature in Song and Yuan period, was known for their pursuit of simplicity in describing the psychological state, which was basically the result of their attempts to satisfy peculiar Chinese tastes for aesthetic sense and their own way of appreciation of beauty. This tendency was all the more apparent in the style of Zhang and Hui's novels, the prototype of The Romance of the Three Kingdoms. The latter is especially noteworthy in that it successfully adopted a method of psychological description, which is often termed as the language of psychological state. It did not use the method very often, but it was very effective in allowing the readers to have room for their own stretch of imagination, eventually making a substantial artistic success. In this report, the main focus is on the characters' psychology, using “ravings”, “monologue” and “inner monologue” foundation for numerous studies of the 『The Romance of the Three kingdoms』 's literal language. “Monologue”, “inner monologue” and “ravings” are means of building the novel's structure and revealing the essence of the characters' emotions. Thanks to the successfully use of various kinds of the language of psychological state expression and its numerous functions, this novel has achieved the artistic success.