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Multi-Channel Network (MCN) has floated as a new content provider in Internet video service market. This study analyzes relationships of substitute and complementarity between the professional producer-centered Over-The-Top (OTT), and the user-producer- centered MCN. It reviews the competition between user- and producer-provided content in the Internet video service market and explored its political implications. It uses ‘uses and gratification theory’ and ‘niche theory’. Data was collected from 344 survey respondents with actual use experience of OTT and MCN. The definition of ‘limited resources’ was analyzed in relation to three Internet video service attributes: usability, interactivity, and diversity, and in relation to two aspects of ICT innovation: the media convergence effect and the participation innovation process. Results show that OTT dominates the dimension of usability, while MCN dominates the dimensions of interactivity and the participation innovation process. Using the principle of functional similarity, it is discovered that OTT and MCN form a substitute relationship in the platform areas of usability and the media convergence effect, and a complementary relationship in content- related areas such as interactivity and the process of participation innovation.
Although a hemangioma is usually found in childhood, a cavernous hemangioma of the genitalia is rarely found. Urologists often face difficulty when making the decision for surgery to treat a genital cavernous hemangioma. We report here on a case of a cavernous hemangioma that extended into the glans penis, penile shaft and scrotum. Immediately after surgical excision of the hemangiomas in the penile shaft and scrotum, the worm-like lesions subsided. The protruding lesions of the glans penis were naturally relieved after 12 months follow up. (Korean J Urol 2008;49:92- 94)
Purpose: Intravesical prostatic protrusion (IPP) is a morphological change of prostate protruded into bladder and might be related to bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) depending on the extent of protrusion. There is a high possibility that lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) tends to get worse as IPP grows. Therefore, it is necessary to examine the effect of IPP on LUTS after revision of prostate volume in order to identify the direct effect of IPP on BOO and LUTS. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study of 296 male patients diagnosed with benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) between August 2006 and December 2008 were performed. The patients were evaluated with international prostate symptoms score (IPSS) and quality of life (QoL), uroflowmetry (UFR), post-void residual urine volume (PVR), prostate volume and IPP as measured by transurectal ultrasound (TRUS). The changes of IPSS after 8 weeks of medication treatment and the occurrence rates of transurethral resection of prostate (TURP) and acute urinary retention (AUR) were compared. By checking IPSS and UFR, the improvement of voiding symptom was evaluated. Results: The population of patients with moderate enlargement (30-50gm) of prostate extent was 147 (49.6%) out of 296, the whole examined population. There were correlation between IPP and IPSS (p=0.002) and the storage symptoms score was significantly increased (p=0.014). After 8 weeks of medication treatment, both moderate BPH patients with IPP showed similar improvement in storage symptom compared to non-IPP groups. But, the TURP was significantly performed more with IPP (p=0.040) than non-IPP groups and more AUR has occurred (p=0.013). After TURP, IPP group resulted in improvement of IPSS, storage symptoms score and voiding symptoms score statistically compared to non-IPP group. As the change of UFR and IPSS after TURP had shown, the improvements of voiding volume, maximal flow rate (Qmax), and average flow rate (Qavg) in IPP groups were smaller however, it is no correlation in statistical view. Conclusions: Moderate BPH group with IPP has a higher possibility of having AUR and surgical treatment while showing significant correlation with storage symptoms. A further prospective study is necessary for identification of improvement of IPSS and UFR after TURP and IPP should be checked carefully during TRUS.
13C-MFA (Metabolic Flux Analysis) is a technique for decoding fluxes of central carbon metabolism using a C source marked 13C. Provide a C source marked 13C in strain and measure the label information of the metabolite. It is then possible to track label information based on a model that decodes flux using specific enzymes in the strain. Resveratrol is a beneficial compound found in plants. It has the effects of cancer, antioxidants and life extension. Resveratrol can be created using Acyl-CoA in the EMP pathway and Tyrosine in the PP pathway. However, the road has a different temper and is difficult to turn into a single strain. Thus, an attempt was made to produce resveratrol using a co-culture. In this study, two E. coli were designed to supply more resveratrol precursor based on previous studies. Then we will produce resveratrol with a co-culture. Finally, using 13C-MFA to analyze the metabolic rate of co-culture, and ways to increase resveratrol will be discussed.
Modular Multilevel Converter (MMC)-based HVDC power transmission using a real-time simulator is one of the key technologies in power electronics research. This paper introduces the design methodology of a physical MMC-HVDC control system based on a Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), which has the advantage of high-speed parallel operation, and validates the accuracy of MMC-HVDC control when operated with a Real-Time Digital Simulator (RTDS). Finally, this paper compares and analyzes the characteristics of capacitor voltage balancing methods such as Nearest Level Control (NLC), NLC with a reduced switching frequency, and tolerance band modulation implemented on physical control system.
Energy-harvesting nodes in wireless sensor networks(WSNs) can be exhausted due to a heavy workload even though they can harvest energy from their environment. On contrast, they can sometimes fully charged, thus waste the harvested energy due to the limited battery-capacity. In order to utilize the harvested energy efficiently, we introduce a selective data compression and transmission range control scheme for energy-harvesting nodes. In this scheme, if the residual energy of a node is expected to run over the battery capacity, the node spends the surplus energy to exploit the data compression or the transmission range expansion; these operations can reduce the burden of intermediate nodes at the expanse of its own energy. Otherwise, the node performs only basic operations such as sensing or transmitting so as to avoid its blackout time. Simulation result verifies that the proposed scheme gathers more data with fewer number of blackout nodes than other schemes by consuming energy efficiently.