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        • KCI등재

          적정 설계변경안 선정을 위한 의시결정 지원 프로세스

          이종식,전재열,Lee, Jong-Sik,Chun, Jae-Youl 한국건설관리학회 2010 한국건설관리학회 논문집 Vol.11 No.2

          정부기관은 공사계획단계 및 시공 중 발생하는 설계변경으로 인한 공사비 증가가 23,663억 원에 달하는 것으로 발표한바 있다. 설계변경은 표준화가 어려운 건축설계의 특성으로 인해 발생하는 현상으로 발주자의 요구사항변경, 관련 제도, 설계 부적정, 현장여건 등 건설프로젝트 전반에 걸쳐 그 원인이 존재하기 때문에 기본설계 및 중간설계 단계에서 완벽한 설계를 한다 하더라도 설계변경을 예방하고 감소시키는 데에는 한계가 있다. 또한 공사계획 및 시공단계에서 단편적 인 검토만으로 설계변경안을 선정하는 현행 관리프로세스는 또 다른 설계변경을 유발시켜 재시공과 그에 따른 공사비 증가의 주된 원인이 되고 있어, 공사계획 및 시공 중 발생한 설계변경에 효율적으로 대처하는 방안이 요구되고 있다. 이에 본 연구에서는 CM 발주방식의 건축프로젝트를 대상으로 건설사업관리자가 프로젝트 수행 중 발생하는 설계변경에 대하여 다수의 설계변경안을 비용, 성능, 시공성 측면에서 복합적이고 정량적으로 평가하여 적정 설계변경안을 선정할 수 있는 의사결정지원 프로세스의 논리구조와 기본모형을 제시하였다. A government agency has been announced to increase 23,663 hundred million wons by cost of design change which occurred in the pre-construction and construction phase. As design change is a phenomenon to occur by means of a characteristic of the building design that standardization is difficult, even if it is said that a perfect design is done in design phase, design change is prevented, and it is going to decrease, and there is a limit. Because there are some causes in all of the construction project, it is change order of client, relative system, unfit design and field condition, etc. In this study, we are suggested logic and basic model of the decision making support process model that it should selecting the optimal alternative through complex and quantitative analyzed: that is cost, performance and constructability as respect Owner or CMr is executing project under the CM delivery system construction project which it occurred design change.

        • KCI등재

          삼차원적으로 연결된 미세다공성 구조를 가진 이상인산칼슘 골이식재의 골치유에 관한 조직계측학적 평가

          이종식,최석규,류경호,박광범,장제희,이재목,서조영,박진우,Lee, Jong-Sik,Choi, Seok-Kyu,Ryoo, Gyeong-Ho,Park, Kwang-Bum,Jang, Je-Hee,Lee, Jae-Mok,Suh, Jo-Young,Park, Jin-Woo 대한치주과학회 2008 Journal of Periodontal & Implant Science Vol.38 No.2

          Purpose: The purpose of this study was to histomorphometrically evaluate the osteoconductivity of a new biphasic calcium phosphate ceramics with fully interconnected microporous structure. Material and Methods: Osseous defects created in the rabbit calvaria were filled with four different bone graft substitutes. Experimental sites were filled with a new fully interconnected microporous biphasic calcium phosphate with(BCP-2) or without(BCP-1) internal macropore of $4400\;{\mu}m$ in diameter. MBCP(Biomatlante, France) and Bio-Oss(Geistlich Pharma, Switzerland) were used as controls in this study. Histomorphometric evaluation was performed at 4 and 8 weeks after surgery. Result: In histologic evaluation, new bone formation and direct bony contact with the graft particles were observed in all four groups. At 4 weeks, BCP-1(15.5%) and BCP-2(15.5%) groups showed greater amount of newly formed mineralized bone area(NB%) compared to BO(11.4%) and MBCP(10.3%) groups. The amounts of NB% at 8 weeks were greater than those of 4 weeks in all four groups, but there was no statistically significant differences in NB% between the groups. Conclusion: These results indicate that new bone substitutes, BCP with interconnected microporous structure and with or without internal macroporous structures, have the osteoconductivity comparable to those of commercially available bone substitutes, MBCP and Bio-Oss.

        • KCI등재

          정규화 기법 기반의 설계VE 기능 및 비용 점수 산출 모델

          이종식,Lee, Jongsik 한국건설관리학회 2015 한국건설관리학회 논문집 Vol.16 No.4

          VE는 공공건설사업의 예산절감과 기능향상, 구조적 안전, 품질 확보를 목적으로 하고 있다. 그러나 관련 내용이 설계의 경제성 검토 위주로 구성되어 있어 구조적 안전과 품질확보를 위한 검토가 미흡해 질 가능성이 문제점으로 지적되고 있고, VE를 단순한 원가절감방법으로 생각하는 인식으로 인해 VE 수행 시 비용절감에 치중된 대안이 제시되어 왔다. 이에 대한 개선방안으로 정부에서는 생애주기비용절감 가치향상 제안서를 도입하고 원안과 대안의 비용 점수와 기능 점수, 가치 변화를 명시하도록 하였다. 그러나 구체적인 방법과 기준이 제시되어 있지 않아 이론적 근거보다는 실무적 편의 위주의 방법이 사용되고 있다. 현행 방법은 원안과 대안의 비(比)를 이용하기 때문에 간단하고 사용이 편리하다. 하지만 현행 방법을 이용하여 평가 값을 점수화 하면 설계안 속성에 따라 다양한 값이 산출되어 광범위한 점수 분포를 나타낸다. 따라서 많은 양의 VE 안을 평가하여 수정 설계를 위한 최적 안을 선택하는 의사결정과정에서 평가자에게 혼란을 줄 수 있다. 이는 합리적인 의사결정을 저해하는 요소로서, VE대안의 비용과 성능 속성 정보를 이용하여 산출한 가치 점수의 신뢰성 및 객관성 검증의 어려움으로 이어진다. 본 연구는 VE 안 평가 시 의사결정의 효율성 제고를 위하여 기능 점수와 비용 점수 산출 절차와 방법을 고찰하여 문제점을 제시하고, 개선 방안으로서, 정규화 기반의 기능 및 비용 점수 산출 모델을 제시하였다. VE aims at reduction in a budget, improvement of function, structural safety and quality security for public construction projects. However, there is possibility for the structural safety and quality security review to be insufficient because related regulations are mostly composed of analysis on economic efficiency of design. In addition, due to the misconception about VE as a cost saving methodology, an alternative is being presented which still focuses mainly on cost saving, but with no objective evaluation of function related to cost. In order to improve this, the government adopted the reduction of life cycle cost and proposal of value improvement, and let people specify the cost and function of the original plan versus the alternative plan, and the value changes between them. However, it is written mainly into practical convenience rather than theoretical basis since a specific way is not suggested. The current method sets a different starting point by applying the attributional difference of function and cost. Furthermore, an evaluation standard for correlating is an important element in rational decision making for assessing and choosing an alternative. This paper analyzes the process and method of function & cost scoring when performing VE and suggests a mathematical normalization model in order to support rational decision making when selecting an optimum plan.

        • KCI등재

          체중지지 훈련이 만성 뇌졸중 환자의 체중지지능력 및 균형에 미치는 영향

          이종식,남기원,김경윤,윤장원,박종항,Lee, Jong-Sik,Nam, Ki-Won,Kim, Kyung-Yoon,Yoon, Jang-Won,Park, Jong-Hang 대한물리치료학회 2012 대한물리치료학회지 Vol.24 No.4

          Purpose: In this study, the following experiment was conducted to see how to apply the sprinter pattern in proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) and functional weight bearing exercise affected balance capabilities and weight bearing among chronic stroke patients. Methods: The subjects included 27 subjects who had been diagnosed with hemiplegia due to stroke. A total of 12 sessions was held, 3 sessions a week over 4 weeks, were provided to the groups. The control group received general rehabilitation program, and the experimental group performed sprinter pattern in PNF or functional weight bearing exercise. The weight bearing capability and static balance capability test was implemented by using Good-Balance System and Frailty and Injuries Cooperative Studies of Intervention Techniques, while the dynamic balance capability test was carried out by using Four Square Step Test and Timed "Up and Go". Results: The paretic/nonparetic side weight bearing by application of each exercise showed that there were no significant differences in variation among each groups on before exercise, after exercise, 2 weeks after exercise. Static balance test by application of each exercise showed that there were significant differences after exercise and 2 weeks after exercise. Dynamic balance test by application of each exercise showed that there were significant differences after exercise and 2 weeks after exercise. Conclusion: To put the results together, the application of sprinter pattern and functional weight bearing exercise was effective in improving static and dynamic balance capabilities. Therefore, these exercises are helpful to improve balance in patients with stroke.

        • 보행자 전용 휴대전화-시티폰서비스

          이종식,Lee, Jong-Sik 한국정보통신집흥협회 1995 정보화사회 Vol.89 No.-

          보행자전용 휴대전화(일명 : 시티폰)가 서울 여의도 지역에서 선보여 세간에 화제가 되고 있다. 비록 시범서비스중이지만 편리성, 저렴한 비용, 높은 보안성으로 인해 조만간 이동통신시장을 위협할 다크호스로 떠오를 것으로 전망된다. 이에 도입배경, 특징, 해외동향 그리고 향후 계획을 중심으로 시티폰서비스의 세계에 접근해 본다.

        • KCI등재

          Assessment of NH<sub>4</sub><sup>+</sup> and Ca<sup>2+</sup> on Acidity Neutralization of Rainwater in Ansung Area

          이종식,주민,박백균,Lee, Jong Sik,Min, Zhu,Park, Baeg-Gyoon 한국토양비료학회 2000 한국토양비료학회지 Vol.33 No.5

          우리나라 강우의 pH 분포와 산성도 중화에 미치는 $NH_4{^+}$ 및 $Ca^{2+}$ 영향을 평가하기 위하여 1993, 1994, 1995, 1997 및 1998년 각각 5월부터 10월까지 6개월 동안 안성지역에 내린 강우의 주요 이온들의 함량을 조사한 결과, 강우의 산성도 분포는 pH 5.0~5.6의 범위가 가장 많았으며 pH 5.6 이상의 강우는 연차적으로 점차 감소하는 경향이었다. 빗물중 $SO_4{^2-}$와 $NO_3{^-}$의 당량비는 1994년 이후 점차 증가하여 빗물중에 함유된 음이온중 $SO_4{^2-}$가 차지하는 비중이 점차 높아졌다. $[H^+]+[NH_4{^+}]+[Ca^{2+}]$의 역대수 값으로 계산되는 이론적 산성도는 측정된 pH값에 비해 5.0~12.6배 높았고 대기중에 존재하는 알카리 물질들에 의한 빗물의 월별 중화력은 강우량이 많은 7월과 8월에 가장 적었다. 또한 빗물의 산성도 중화에는 $NH_4{^+}$가 $Ca^{2+}$ 보다 기여도가 컸으며, 두 이온에 의한 빗물의 중화는 점차 감소하는 경향을 나타냈다. This study was carried out to assess the neutralization ability of $NH_4{^+}$ and $Ca^{2+}$ on the acidity of rainwater in Korea. The rainwater was collected in Ansung area for six months from May to October in 1993, 1994, 1995, 1997, and 1998, respectively. Rainwater were analyzed for chemical composition and their theoretical pH values were calculated. As for the results, the distribution rates of rain at the pH 5.0~5.6 range were high. The equivalent ratio of $SO_4{^2-}/NO_3{^-}$ was decreased since 1994. Theoretical acidity which was calculated by-$log([H^+]+[NH_4{^+}]+[Ca^{2+}])$ was 5.0~12.6 times higher than measured acidity in Ansung area each monitoring year. The monthly difference between measured pH and theoretical pH was lower in July and August than any other month. $NH_4{^+}$ contributed more to the neutralization of rainwater acidity than $Ca^{2+}$. And the neutralization ratio of rainwater acidity by these two ions decreased during the years from 91.8% in 1993 to 88.7% in 1998.

        • F-149 Liquid biopsy for EGFR genotyping using cell-free DNA and extracellular vesicular DNA of pleural effusion in pulmonary adenocarcinoma patients

          이종식,( Jae Young Hur ),( In Ae Kim ),( Hee Joung Kim ),( Chang Min Choi ),( Jae Chol Lee ),( Wan Seop Kim ),( Kye Young Lee ) 대한결핵 및 호흡기학회 2017 대한결핵 및 호흡기학회 추계학술대회 초록집 Vol.124 No.-

          Background: Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are known to carry oncogenic double stranded DNA. We investigate the liquid biopsy using cell-free (cf) DNA and extracellular vesicular (EV) DNA of pleural effusion for EGFR genotyping. Methods: Fifty pleural effusion of pulmonary adenocarcinoma patients were evaluated. Non-cellular components after removing cell pellets by centrifuge were used for liquid biopsy and EVs were isolated by ultracentrifuge method. EV DNA and cf DNA were extracted separately and EGFR genotyping was done by PNA-clamping method. For the analysis of T790M detection, cell block or cytology slides were used as rebiopsy sample, when compared with liquid samples. Results: Among 32 EGFR-TKI naive patients with known tissue EGFR genotyping, liquid biopsy using effusion EV DNA showed 100% matching with tissue EGFR genotyping in 19 EGFR mutant cases and detected 3 more EGFR mutant cases in tissue wild type (WT) patients, while liquid biopsy using effusion cf DNA missed 2 cases of tissue-based EGFR mutant patients and found 2 more EGFR mutant cases in tissue WT patients. In 18 patients with acquired resistance to EGFR-TKI, EGFR genotyping using effusion EV DNA detected T790M mutation in 13 of 18 (72.2%) patients, while 11 of 18 (61.1%) patients were detected by using effusion cf DNA, respectively. In contrast, only 3 patients were found to have T790M when using cell block slides. Conclusions: Liquid biopsy using effusion EV DNA is highly promising for EGFR genotyping, especially detecting T790M mutation, when compared with cf DNA.

        • KCI등재

          자가치아이식술의 장기적인 임상적 평가

          이종식,박진우,서조영,이재목,Lee, Jong-Sik,Park, Jin-Woo,Suh, Jo-Young,Lee, Jae-Mok 대한치주과학회 2008 Journal of Periodontal & Implant Science Vol.38 No.2

          Purpose: Many clinical studies have reported that higher success rates are achieved with teeth that have immature roots than other autotransplanted teeth that have more immature root. However, based on date published recently, the success rate of autotransplantation of teeth with complete root formation was higher. The purpose of this study was to examine the long term(2 to 6 years follow-up) success rate of autotransplantation of third molar with complete root formation and to discuss some conditions and prerequisites for success. Materials and Methods: 26 sites of 24 patients aged 26 to 55 (mean age 40.8) were autotransplanted with third molars with complete root formation. These cases were followed for 2 to 6 years after surgery. The success criteria included (1) no discomfort during functioning (2) absence of progressive root resorption and alveolar bone resorption. Result: Of 26 teeth 5 teeth were failed, therefore success rate is 81%(21/26 teeth). The results suggested that higher success rate is acquired from (1) extraction socket due to dental caries (2) mandibular recipient site (3) patient younger than 40 years old. Autotransplantation of third molar to replace molars with advanced periodontal disease also showed considerably high success rate(84%). Conclusion: With appropriate case selection, autotransplantation of third molar with complete root formation remains a viable alternative for replacing a missing molar tooth.

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