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Children’s literature has a significant impact on children’s intelligence and emotional development. The interest in children’s literature is increasingly growing with the expectation of the award winning books and the educational values of children’s books. Although the interest has brought about a quantitative increase in the domestic children’s books, it has difficulty selecting high-quality children’s books among various books. In such an environment, the Children’s Literature Award will provide an authoritative source of choice, which will help guide the selection of quality books to those who want to read children’s books. In addition to this trend, the library should check the status of winning works and incorporate them into new collection development policies. The purpose of this study is to present the direction of the library book development policy of the public library. For this purpose, 10 public libraries in Seoul, Korea were selected and analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively through the collection status of the children’s literature winning books, loan status, turnover, Bonn’s use Factor, and Trueswell’s 80/20 rule. Based on the results of this analysis, we would like to suggest some issues to be reflected in library development policy of the future. 아동문학은 유아에서 초등학생에 이르는 아이들의 지능 및 정서 발달에 중요한 영향을 끼치는 매체이다. 아동문학에 대한 관심은 국내 그림책들의 해외 아동도서상 수상, 아동도서의 교육적 가치에 대한 조명 등으로 높아져 왔다. 그 관심은 국내 아동도서 시장의 양적 증대를 불러왔으나 반대급부로 다양한 도서 사이에서 양질의 아동도서를 선택하는 것은 어려워졌다. 이러한 환경에서 아동문학상은 수상작에게 권위 있는 선택근거를 제공함으로써 아동도서를 읽고자 하는 사람들에게 쉽게 양질의 도서를 선택할 수 있는 길잡이가 된다. 국민의 정보 접근권을 보장하는 도서관은 이러한 흐름에 발맞추어 수상작에 대한 현황을 확인하고 새로이 장서개발정책에 반영해야 한다. 본 연구는 공공도서관의 아동도서 장서개발 정책에 대한 방향을 제시하고자 서울시내 10개 공공 도서관을 선정하여 아동문학상 수상작 장서의 소장현황, 대출현황, 장서회전율, Bonn의 이용계수, Trueswell의 80/20법칙을 적용하여 양적, 질적으로 분석하였으며 분석 결과를 바탕으로 향후 도서관의 장서개발 정책에 반영해야 할 사안을 제시하였다.
Calcium fluoride, created by topical fluoride application, is the reservoir for fluoride ion regulated by pH in the oral environment. Therefore, the amount and the maintenance of calcium fluoride have an important role in preventing dental caries. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of Nd:YAG laser irradiation on the generation of calcium fluoride and the acid resistance of tooth enamel. The bovine anterior permanent teeth were prepared (n=276), and divided into following groups : no treatment (control) fluoride application alone, laser irradiation alone, laser irradiation after fluoride application, and fluoride application after laser irradiation. And each group was subdivided based on the application time of 1.23% acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) (5 min and 30 min) and the irradiation energy of Nd:YAG laser ($20J/cm^2\;and\;40J/cm^2$). In case of fluoride application, each group was divided according to KOH treatment. Twenty three treatment conditions were made for this experiment and twelve specimens were assigned to each treatment condition. In each treatment condition, ten specimens were used for chemical analysis and two specimens were observed under SEM. In groups without treating KOH, fluoride content and the depth of enamel dissolved were measured using enamel biopsy technique. In groups with treating KOH, the amount of calcium fluoride was measured by the treatment with 1 M KOH for 24 hours and enamel biopsy was performed after KOH treatment. The results were analyzed by the fluoride content and the depth of enamel dissolved by enamel biopsy, amount and thickness of calcium fluoride, and the surface structures of enamel. The results are as follows: 1. In groups without treating KOH, the fluoride content of removed enamel showed a positive relationship with the energy density of laser when the laser irradiated before fluoride application 2. In groups without treating KOH, the depth of enamel dissolved decreased more with the combined laser and fluoride treatment than with laser or fluoride treatment, except for the case of $20J/cm^2$ laser irradiation after 5 minute fluoride application (p<0.05). 3. The amount of calcium fluoride did not increased by laser treatment with no statistical significance(p>0.05). 4. The particle size of calcium fluoride increased in case of fluoride treatment after laser irradiation, compared with fluoride application alone. In case of laser treatment after fluoride application, the particle size of calcium fluoride increased and some of the particles fused as well. 5. There were no significant differences in the fluoride content of dissolved enamel between groups without treating KOH and control group, except for the case of laser irradiation after treatment of APF for 30 minutes (p>0.05). 6. In groups with treating KOH, depth of removed enamel in the groups of combined treatment with laser and fluoride was shallower than that in fluoride application groups (p<0.05). 7. In groups without treating KOH, the relationship between fluoride content and the depth of enamel dissolved showed more negative (Spearman correlation coefficient: -0.6281) than in groups with treating KOH (Spearman correlation coefficient: -0.3792). The greater amount of calcium fluoride could be found in case where there was a significant differences of the depth of enamel dissolved between groups with and without treating KOH. From these results, it can be concluded that laser seems to be a little effects on the amount of calcium fluoride formation, but has some effect on the lowering the solubility of calcium fluoride. As the combined treatment of laser and fluoride application showed more effective acid-resistant property, more extended recall period for fluoride application can be achieved with this combined treatment in the clinic. 불소도포시 주로 형성되는 calcium fluoride는 구강내 환경에서 pH에 의해 조절되는 불소의 저장고 역할을 하여 치아우식 예방에 있어서 중요한 역할을 하는 것으로 알려져 있다. 따라서 불소도포의 우식예방 효과는 calcium fluoride를 얼마나 많이 형성시켜 오래 지속시키는 가에 달려 있다. 이에 치아 내산성 증가에 효과 있다고 알려진 Nd:YAG 레이저 조사가 calcium fluoride형성 및 치아 내산성에 미치는 영향에 대해 알아보기 위해서 실험을 시행하였다. 소의 영구전치에서 276개의 시편을 제작하여 아무런 처치를 하지 않은 군을 대조군으로 하고 1.23% acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) 5분, 30분 도포 및 Nd:YAG 레이저 조사에너지 밀도 $20J/cm^2,\;40J/cm^2$의 조건에 따라 불소 도포군, 레이저 조사군, 불소 도포후 레이저 조사군, 레이저 조사후 불소 도포군으로 분류하였다. 불소도포를 시행한 경우 이를 다시 KOH 처리 여부에 따라 나누어 23개의 실험조건을 만들었다. 각 실험조건에 12개의 시편을 배정하고 이중 10개의 시편은 불소 및 무기인 측정에, 나머지 2개의 시편은 표면 관찰에 사용하였다. KOH 비처치군에서 0.1 N HClO4로 enamel biopsy를 시행하여 탈회 법랑질의 불소농도 및 탈회깊이를 측정하였으며 KOH 처치군에서는 1 M KOH로 24시간 처리하여 calcium fluoride를 정량 후 enamel biopsy를 시행하였다. 실험결과 얻어진 자료 및 주사 전자현미경 관찰 소견을 비교하여 다음의 결과를 얻었다. 1. KOH 비처치군에서 탈회된 법랑질의 불소농도는 레이저조사 후 불소도포시 레이저 에너지 밀도 증가에 따라 증가되는 경향을 보였다. 2. KOH 비처치군에서 법랑질 탈회깊이는 불소를 5분 도포후 레이저 $20J/cm^2$를 조사한 경우를 제외하고는 레이저와 불소를 병행하여 처치시 각각을 단독으로 처치시보다 탈회깊이가 작았다 (p<0.05). 3. Calcium fluoride의 양은 레이저의 조사에 의해 유의 있게 증가하지 않았다 (p>0.05). 4. Calcium fluoride 입자는 불소만 도포한 경우에 비해 레이저 조사후 불소도포시 입자크기가 증가되었으며, 불소도포후 레이저 조사시 입자크기의 증가와 함께 일부 융합된 양상을 보였다. 5. KOH 처치군에서 법랑질의 불소농도는 불소를 30분 도포후 레이저를 조사한 경우를 제외하고는 대조군의 불소농도와 유의한 차이가 없었다(p>0.05). 6. KOH 처치군에서 불소와 레이저를 병행한 경우, 불소만 도포한 경우보다 탈회된 법랑질의 깊이가 작았다 (p<0.05). 7. KOH 비처치군에서 탈회된 법랑질의 불소농도와 탈회깊이의 상관관계(Spearman correlation coefficient: -0.6281)는 KOH 처치군(Spearman correlation coefficient: -0.3792)에 비해 높은 음의 상관 관계를 보였고, 동일한 조건으로 불소도포 및 레이저 조사를 시행한 경우에 있어서 KOH 처리 여부에 따른 탈회법랑질 깊이의 유의차가 있는 경우 calcium fluoride의 형성량이 많았다. 이상의 실험결과로 미루어 보아 레이저 조사가 calcium fluoride의 형성량에 영향을 미치지 않았으나 레이저 조사의 영향으로 calcium fluoride의 용해가 감소하는 것으로 판단된다. 또한 불소도포 및 레이저 조사의 병행은 각각을 단독으로 처치한 경우에 비하여 치아 내산성 증가면에서 유리하므로 임상에서 불소도포주기 연장과 같은 유용한 결과를 얻을 수 있을 것으로 생각된다.
Background: The angiotensin coverting enzyme(ACE) gene(encoding kininase II, EC 188.8.131.52) contains a polymorphism based on the presence(insertion [I]) or absence(deletion [D]) within an intron of a 287bp nonsense DNA domain, resulting in three genotypes(D/ I) and I/I homozygotes, and I/D heterozygotes). Alu insertion is associated with lower ACE level than deletion allele(D) and it was observed that D/D individuals have twice the ACE activity of I/I patients. Pregnancy induced hypertension(PIH) probably results from dominating pressor systems owing to loss of antagonizing vasodilator autacoids. Angiotensin II is an extremely potent arteriolar vasoconstrictor. Overactivity or failure to supress responsiveness to the increased activity of angiotensin II, which is generated by ACE, would seem to be a reasonable basis for the vasoconstriction of PIH. The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between ACE genotype and PIH. Methods: Blood sampling was taken from 39 patients with PIH. The hypertensive disorders, confirmed at postpartum follow up, were classified as gestational hypertension without proteinuria, preeclampsia(mild and severe) and eclampsia. The diagnosis of preeclampsia was made according to the American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology criteria of hypertension and proteinuria($gt;300 mg/24 hr urine). Genomic DNA was extracted from blood sample. After PCR amplification of the respective fragments from intron 16 of the ACE gene, size fractionation and visualization by electrophoresis were performed. Results: PIH group(including gestational hypertension, mild and severe preeclampsia : frequency of I allele 0.756 and D allele 0.244) had more I allele and less D allele when compared with normal population(frequency of I allele 0.609 and D allele 0.391)(p$lt;0.05). And PIH group had more I/I homozygote individuals showing significant distortion from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium of ACE genotype(p$lt;0.05). Moreover, severe preeclampsia group alon(frequency of I allele 0.759 and D allele 0.241) had more I allele and less D allele when compared with normal population and had significantly more I/I homozygote individuals. Conclusion: As pregnancies with PIH had more ACE I allele and I/I homozygote individuals. PIH could be associated with I allele of the ACE gene. Considering the observed codominant association between the D-I polymorphism and plasma ACE activity, our result is in favor of the thesis that PIH primarily arises from defective synthsis of vasodilating autacoids and renin-angiotensin system exerts secondary vasoconstrictive action. However, the relationship between ACE genotype and defective vasodilating mechanism during pregnancy is unknown at present.
Ovarian cancer is a leading cause of death in women. Early detection of ovarian cancer is essential to decrease mortality. However, the early diagnosis of ovarian cancer is difficult due to a lack of clinical symptoms and suitable molecular diagnostic markers. Thus,identification of meaningful tumor biomarkers with potential clinical application is clearly needed. To search for a biomarker for the early detection of ovarian cancer,we identified human anterior gradient 2 (AGR2)from our systematic analysis of paired normal and ovarian tumor tissue cDNA microarray. We noted a marked overexpression of AGR2 mRNA and protein in early stage mucinous ovarian tumors compared to normal ovarian tissues and serous type ovarian tumors by Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. To further elucidate the role of AGR2 in ovarian tumorigenesis,stable 2774 human ovarian cancer cell lines overexpressing AGR2 were established. Forced expression of AGR2 in 2774 cells enhanced the growth and migration of ovarian cancer cells. AGR2 protein was detected in the serum of mucinous ovarian cancer patients by Western blot and ELISA analysis. Thus,AGR2 is a potential biomarker for the diagnosis of mucinous ovarian cancer and an ELISA assay may facilitate the early detection of mucinous ovarian cancer using patient serum.
Sonographic prenatal diagnosis and management of a twin pregnancy complicated by acardia of one twin is presented. Doppler umbilican artery velocimetric studies demonstrated reversed blood flow of umbilican artery in malformed twin and markedly different umbilical artery systolic to end-diastolic(S/D) ratio in the twins. Because of suspected fetal distress of normal twin, preterm cesarean delivery of both twin was perfomed at 31st week of gestation and resulted in survival of the healthy normal twin.
Industry fluctuations in the supply of DRAM chips relative to demand have been characterized by what is called “the silicon cycle.” In the period between 2006 and 2008, the DRAM industry experienced an unusually sharp transition from a shortage of DRAM products to an extreme oversupply, culminating with the crash of DRAM prices in 2008. The industry’s overcapacity was preceded by a mad race to expand capacity; this race has been dubbed as the “chicken game” in the media. Even in the time of plunging DRAM prices, players preferred not to reduce their output. The amplified industry cycle accelerated the exit of financially vulnerable firms. I argue that the combination of the amplification of cycle and rising entry barriers fosters the transition of an industry to an oligopoly, in which cyclicality is curbed and the positions of market leaders are solidified.
Background: Various molecular biological techniques using fetal cells in maternal blood have been recetly developed as a nonivnvasive method for prenatal diagnosis. Current technologies, however, have not gained a sufficient diagnostic accuracy for routine use because only a few number of fetal cells exist in maternal circulation. The process of ell enrichment is required to overcome this problem. Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the usefulness of cell sorting methods according to single or multiple use of monoclonal antibodies in the detection of Y-specific sequence(DYS14) from fetal nucleated red blood cell(nRBC) in maternal blood. Study Design: Periperal blood was obtained from eighty-one pregnant women at 11-24 weeks of gestational age. Fetal nRBCs were discriminated by means of centrifugation under triple density radient and by magnetic-activated cell sorter(MACS) using CD45 monoclonal antibody(mAb). Thirty-nine samples were resorted using CD 71 and GPA mAb after using CD45 mAb. After DNA extration, polymerase chain reaction(PCR) and gel electrophoresis were performed for the detection of Y-specific sequence(DYS14) in each sample. Results: The diagnostic indices of PCR after cell sorting using only CD45 mAb in the detection of Y-specific sequence from fetal nRBC in maternal blood were sensitivity 85%(17/20), specificity 86%(19/22), positive predictive value 85%(17/20), and negative predictive value 86%(19/22). After using multiple monoclonal antibodies, those of PCR were 68%(13/19), 85% (17/20), 81%(13/16), and 74%(17/23), respectively. Conclusion: Cell sorting method using multiple monoclonal antibodies may not add more efficacy in the detection of Y-specific sequence of fetal nRBC.