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        • KCI등재

          Hybridizing Genres and Cultural Ambivalence in Chang-rae Lee`s Native Speaker

          이정화 ( Jung Hwa Lee ) 한국영미문화학회 2009 영미문화 Vol.9 No.3

          This essay examines the thematic continuum between Chang-rae Lee`s reworking of generic conventions of the bildungsroman and the spy novel in Native Speaker. Reading Native Speaker as a novel not only about Asian American inclusion but also about Asian American authoring, I posit that Lee courts the mainstream American reading public by tactfully mixing conventions of the bildungsroman and the spy novel. Appropriating the two genres, Lee enacts a literary equivalent of John Kwang`s political project that privileges heterogeneity and hybridity. The bildungsroman, a representative Asian American literary expression, has tended to articulate Asian American integration into the nation, often subscribing to the `model minority` myth. Native Speaker uses a major staple of the bildungsroman by following how Henry makes sense of his childhood to construct a public identity. Unlike conventional bildungsromans, however, Lee presents Henry`s coming-to-terms with society as something to be undone rather than something to be accomplished by the end of the novel. Native Speaker problematizes successful cultural bildung by describing Henry`s spying as a function of his successful American education. Lee exploits the familiar trope of the inscrutable Asian spy by casting a Korean American spy as his protagonist, but he complicates the old association between the Asian spy and the `yellow peril`; Distinguishing Henry from stereotypical Asian agents as well as conventional spies, Lee opposes the logic behind the `yellow peril` in favor of a principle of hybridity. Appropriating as well as disrupting cultural expectations of Asian Americans and the literary conventions that code such expectations, Lee suggests "a double articulation" (in the Bhabhaian sense) as a viable strategy for Asian American authorship.

        • KCI등재

          간 이식 소아에서 발생한 이식 후 림프 증식 질환: 단일 기관에서의 21년 경험

          이정화,고재성,서정기,이남준,서경석,이건욱,강경훈,Lee, Jung-Hwa,Ko, Jae-Sung,Seo, Jeong-Kee,Yi, Nam-Joon,Suh, Kyung-Suk,Lee, Kuhn-Uk,Kang, Gyeong-Hoon 대한소아소화기영양학회 2009 Pediatric gastroenterology, hepatology & nutrition Vol.12 No.2

          Purpose: To analyze the clinical spectrum of posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) after liver transplantation in children. Methods: From January 1988 to June 2009, we retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 8 PTLD cases among 148 pediatric patients underwent liver transplantation. The age at transplantation, time of presentation after transplantation, clinical manifestations, histologic diagnosis, results of EBV (Epstein-Barr virus) assessments, managements and outcomes of PTLD were investigated. Results: The prevalence of PTLD in liver transplant pediatric recipients was 5.4% (8 of 148). The mean age of patients was 25.4${\pm}$21.3 months (range 10 to 67 months). Seven of 8 patients (87.5%) underwent liver transplantation before 1 year of age. The common clinical presentations were persistent fever (8 of 8, 100%) and bloody diarrhea (6 of 8, 75%). PTLD was diagnosed with gastrointestinal endoscopic biopsies in five patients and surgical biopsies in three. Histologic findings showed early lesion in three patients, polymorphic in two, and monomorphic in three. Burkitt lymphoma and lymphoblastic lymphoma were found in two of 3 monomorphic patients. Seven of 8 patients were found with EBV-positive. Eight patients were treated with dose reduction of immunosuppressants and infusion of ganciclovir. Rituximab was added to four patients. PTLD were successfully managed in all patients except one who died of sepsis during chemotherapy. Conclusion: Major risk factor of PTLD was to undergo liver transplantation before 1 year of age. Continuous monitoring for EBV viral load and gastrointestinal endoscopic biopsy may be useful to early detection of PTLD. 목 적: 간 이식 소아에서 발생한 PTLD의 경험을 통해 발현 양상, 발병 위험 인자, 진단 방법, 치료 및 예후에 영향을 줄 수 있는 요인들을 알아보았다. 방 법: 1988년 1월부터 2009년 6월까지 서울대학교 어린이병원에서 간 이식을 받은 소아 148명 중 PTLD로 진단된 8명의 환아들을 대상으로 후향적 분석을 하였다. 이식당시 나이, 이식 후 PTLD 증상이 나타날 때 까지의 기간, 임상적 증상, 조직학적 소견, EBV 검사 결과, 치료 및 경과에 대해 조사하였다. 결 과: 간 이식 후 PTLD의 유병률은 5.4%였고, 발생시기는 조기 PTLD가 6명(75%), 후기 PTLD가 2명(25%)이었다. 대상 환아의 간 이식 당시 나이는 평균8.1${\pm}$4.4개월로, 12개월 미만이 7명(87.5%), 12개월 이후가 1명(12.5%)이었다. PTLD 진단 시 주증상은 발열, 설사, 혈변이었고 모두 장이나 장간막 림프절 침범이 있었다. 3명은 개복 수술로 5명은 상부 위장관 내시경이나 대장 내시경을 통한 조직 검사로 진단되었다. 조직학적 진단은 early lesion이 3명, polymorphic PTLD 2명, monomorphic PTLD 1명, Burkitt 림프종 1명, B 세포 림프종이 1명이었다. EBV는 7명에서 양성을 보였다. 치료는 전례에서 1차 치료로 면역억제제를 중지하고 항바이러스제(ganciclovir)를 투여 하였다. 4명의 환아들에서 rituximab을 추가하였고 Burkitt 림프종과 B 세포림프종으로 진단된 환아들은 각각 항암 치료를 병행하였다. B 세포 림프종으로 진단되어 치료 중에 패혈증으로 1명이 사망하였으며 나머지 7명은 호전되었다. 결 론: 1세 미만에 간 이식을 받은 경우가 PTLD 발생의 주요한 위험 인자였으며, EBV viral load의 지속적인 감시와 위장관 내시경을 통한 조직 검사가 PTLD 조기진단에 유용할 것으로 생각한다.

        • SCOPUSKCI등재

          A case of lung abscess caused by Burkholderia cepacia in healthy child

          이정화,이소희,홍성진,최영철,황은구,Lee, Jung Hwa,Lee, So Hee,Hong, Seong Jin,Choi, Young Chil,Hwang, Eun Gu The Korean Pediatric Society 2007 Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics (CEP) Vol.50 No.1

          B. cepacia는 그람 음성 호기성 세균으로서 주로 면역 기능 저하 환자들에서 기회 감염의 중요한 원인균으로 알려져 있다. 이 세균은 매우 병원성이 강하여 침습적인 괴사성 감염을 일으키며 사망에까지 이르게 할 수 있다. B. cepacia는 여러 항생제에 높은 저항성을 보이므로 한 가지 항생제의 단독 요법보다는 여러 항생제의 병용용법을 사용해야 한다. 저자들은 건강한 소아에서 자연 발생한 B. cepacia에 의한 폐농양을 경험하였고 meropenem과 trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole 병용 요법과 수술적 치료를 통해 성공적으로 치유한 1례를 보고하고자 한다. Burkholderia cepacia is a Gram-negative aerobic bacillus known to cause opportunistic infections in the immune-compromised hosts. This microorganism is strongly virulent and causes a necrotising invasive infection that may lead to death. As B. cepacia is highly resistant to various antimicrobials, combination antimicrobial therapy must be used instead of monotherapy. We report a successful treatment of lung abscess that was naturally caused by B. cepacia in a healthy child, through combination antimicrobial therapy of meropenem and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and operative management.

        • SCOPUSKCI등재

          총정맥영양(TPN)과 관련된 미량원소의 결핍

          이정화,Lee, Jung Hwa 대한소아소화기영양학회 2008 Pediatric gastroenterology, hepatology & nutrition Vol.11 No.suppl1

          Trace elements compose a very small portion of the body, however they have a variety of essential functions. Various diseases are caused by trace element deficiencies, and sometimes they can be fatal. Long-term TPN is a risk factor of trace element deficiency, and trace elements need to be checked regularly while receiving TPN. It is important to provide sufficient requirements of trace elements regarding the clinical features and the problems of trace element excess or deficiency. Moreover extensive studies to establish the efficiency of examining human hair and nails, recent method to determine the trace elements, are required.

        • Cloning and Sequence Analysis of 3'-Terminal Region of Human Insulin Receptor Gene

          이정화,박선희,박종상,Lee, Jung-Hwa,Park, Sun-Hee,Park, Jong-Sang Korean Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biol 1990 한국생화학회지 Vol.23 No.3

          사람 인슐린 수용체 유전자의 3'말단 부분의 5 kb를 클로닝하였다. 건조젤 하이브리디제이션을 이용하여 제한효소인 EcoRI으로 자른 사람 인슐린 수용체 유전자 중 4.5-5.5 kb를 확인하고 ${\lambda}gt$ 10벡터에 삽입시켰다. 이렇게 하여 만든 유전자 라이브러리를 카르복시 말단에 해당하는 합성 NDA로 스크린하여 표지를 내는 plague들을 pBR328에 재클로닝하였다. 부분적인 DNA의 염기서열 결정으로 클로닝한 DNA가 사람 인슐린 수용체임을 확인하였다. ExoIII nuclease로 DNA를 크기순서대로 자르는 방법을 이용하여 전사 말단 부위의 1.3 kb의 유전자 염기서열을 결정하였다. 염기서열 분석결과 인슐린 수용체 유전자는 poly(A)가 붙는 자리 앞쪽의 15 뉴클레오티드에 전통적인 AATAAA 염기가 아닌 AATATA 염기가 존재함을 알았는데 아마도 이것이 유전자 조절에 관여할 것으로 여겨진다. 또한 이 유전자는 mRNA 프로세서에 관여한다고 제안된 G/T 밀집 염기서열을 가지고 있음을 알았다. The 5 kb long 3'-terminal region of genomic DNA of Human Insulin Receptor(IR) gene was cloned. By the dry-gel hybridization, 4.5-5.5 kb long DNA of EcoRI cut human chromosomal DNA was identified and inserted into ${\lambda}gt$ 10 vector. Constructed subgenomic library was screened with synthetic 21 mer probe corresponding to the carboxy terminal. By the partial DNA sequencing about 200 bp in 5 kb genomic DNA, we found the sequence was the same as the published result. We sequenced about 1.3 kb transcription terminal region by the ExoIII deletion method. The result of the sequence analysis showed that the IR gene has AATATA sequence 15 nucleotide upstream of poly(A) site instead of the canonical AATAAA consensus sequence and this may play a role in gene regulation and that in poly(A) downstream region the IR gene has the T-rich, G/T cluster sequence, which was proposed as a element of mRNA processing.

        • KCI등재

          불결한 여성성과 오염된 인종, 혹은 비체

          이정화(Lee Jung-Hwa) 새한영어영문학회 2010 새한영어영문학 Vol.52 No.1

          Jean Rhys’s Voyage in the Dark concerns a “downward career” of Anna, a white West Indian Creole girl in England where she is conceived as an embodiment of filthy sexuality and contaminated race. Adopting Kristeva’s abjection, this paper examines Anna’s ambivalent attitude toward her sexual and racial degradations. According to Kristeva, the subject is both attracted to and repulsed by abjection that collapses the boundaries between subject/object and inside/outside. Although Anna’s paradoxical attitude toward prostitution, fear and happiness, has frequently been read as a sign of her passivity and helplessness, it might be interpreted as a response to the cultural equation of the prostitute and the black female. Ambivalently located in-between the West Indies and England, Anna wants to be black and identify with Afro-Caribbean women. Because the prostitute was culturally coded as the black female in nineteenth and early twentieth century Europe, Anna sees something black in the excessive sexuality of prostitution. Anna’s abortion and subsequent bleeding marks another prime moment of abjection in the novel. By introducing the parallel between Carnival and Anna’s hemorrhage, which I read as examples of the grotesque and abjection, respectively, Rhys points to the West Indian communal culture and female bonding with West Indian women as a possible, if not immediately available, source of Anna’s uplifting.

        • KCI등재

          학교구강보건실 운영,비운영 학교 학생들의 구강보건지식과 행동 비교

          이정화 ( Jung Hwa Lee ),조미숙 ( Mi Suk Cho ),이민경 ( Min Kyung Lee ),진혜정 ( Hye Jung Jin ) 한국치위생과학회 2014 치위생과학회지 Vol.14 No.4

          This study was conducted to investigate of effects of school dental clinic program by evaluating the oral health knowledge and the attitude subjected on the students who had experienced the program in Gimhae and Yangsan city. The subjects were a total of 780 students from 6 elementary dental clinics in Gimhae and Yangsan city from July 5 to 23, 2013. The average oral health knowledge level of students with operating program was 3.36 points, the average oral health knowledge level of students with non-operating program was 2.94 points, the average oral health knowledge level with operating school was higher than non-operating school (p<0.001). The more four times tooth brushing per day with operating school was 37.2%, the three times tooth brushing per day with non-operating school was 34.6%. The oral health knowledge level of students with operating school (odds ratio [OR]=1.58, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.35∼1.85) were significantly higher compared to non-operating school, but the number of tooth brushing times per day (OR=1.06, 95% CI=0.93∼1.21) was not significant. There is a clear difference of oral health knowledge and attitude depend on whether the school dental clinic operating or not, because it has a positive effect on the attitude and knowledge for health prevention of students, it will be able to enhance the oral health promotion of the students through the program.

        • 국소 방사선 치료에 완전 관해된 구개편도에 발생한 골수외 형질세포종

          이정화(Jung Hwa Lee),김기성(Ki Seong Kim),김효정(Hyo Jung Kim),박희철(Hee Chul Park),배훈식(Hoon sik Bae),하준욱(Jun Wook Ha),장대영(Dae Young Zang) 대한두경부종양학회 2005 대한두경부 종양학회지 Vol.21 No.2

          '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

          골수외 형질세포종은 드문 종양으로 두경부에 주로 발생하며 수술 혹은 방사선의 국소 치료로 완치가 가능한 종양이다. 저자들은 구개편도에 발생 후 국소 방사선 치료로 완전 관해된 골수외 형질세포종 1예를 경험하였기에 보고하는 바이다. Extramedullary plasmacytoma(EMP) is a rare tumor that originates as a clone of malignant transformed plasma cells. EMPs make up 4% of all plasma cell tumors and 90% of EMP cases occur in the head and neck area. The diagnosis of EMP is based on the morphologic and immunophenotypical finding of a localized collection of monoclonal plasma cells in the absence of plasma cell proliferation elsewhere. Patients with EMP can be treated by surgery or radiotherapy alone or in combination. EMP has good prognosis but long-term follow-up is critical because local recurrence or systemic progression to multiple myeloma may develop more than 30 years after the initial diagnosis of EMP. We report a case of EMP in palatine tonsil of 21-year old man who was treated successfully by radiotherapy alone.

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