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      • KCI등재

        디젤차량용 통합연료히터의 저온유동성 성능평가

        이정화,박형원,이웅수,이영재,이보희,윤달환,Lee, Jeong-Hwa,Park, Hyung-Won,Lee, Woong-Su,Lee, Young-Jea,Lee, Bo-Hee,Yoon, Dal-Hwan 한국전기전자학회 2014 전기전자학회논문지 Vol.18 No.1

        본 연구에서는 저온유동성 성능검사 시스템 구현을 통해 디젤 차량용 통합형 연료히터의 성능을 평가한다. 저온 유동성 시험장치에서 $+20{\sim}-30^{\circ}C$ 온도범위에 따라 분리형과 통합형 연료히터 성능을 비교하고, 필터 전후에 따라 유압과 시동시간, 히터의 소모전력을 측정한다. 이때 다양한 종류의 필터면적을 사용함으로써 통합형 연료히터와 분리형을 비교한 결과 시동 시간이 23% 향상되었고, 저온시동성능은 19% 정도 향상된다. It is very important to supply the diesel fuel from fuel tank to combustion chamber in case of cold start procedure. the paraffin hydrocarbons are easily solidified at low fuel temperature and it can be blocking the fuel supply to the high pressure fuel pump. In order to reduce the fuel crystallization (Waxing), it have been used to develop not only cold flow additives but also the proper mounting design of fuel filter. Block heater in the fuel filter assembly have been also contained to improve the cold start and prevent blocking the fuel supply in Common Rail Direct Injection System. we can obtain the fuel pressure drop and fuel flow rate, power consumption of fuel heater to have the cold flow evaluation test with the saperated and composited fuel heater at the low ambient temperature, Due to evaluating cold flow performance of two block heater, we knew that composited package fuel heater was the excellent cold flow performance compared to separated type and obtained the parameters of cold flow.

      • SCOPUSSCIEKCI등재

        An Experimental Study on the Effect of Cytoskeletal Changes or Osteoblastic Cell Activities

        이정화,남동석,Lee, Jeong-Hwa,Nahm, Dong-Seok The Korean Association Of Orthodontists 1998 대한치과교정학회지 Vol.28 No.6

        Cytoskeleton은 세포핵과 세포외 기질을 연결하고 있어서 기질에 가해지는 물리적 힘에 의해 cytoskeletal change가 유도되고 이에 의해 세포의 개조활성이 영향을 받는다고 생각되어 왔다. 본 연구는 골모세포 활성에 대한cytoskeletal change의 역할을 규명하기 위한 것으로서, 신생 백서로부터 조골세포양 세포를 분리, 배양하고 네가지 농도의 cytochalasin B(CB) 또는 colchicine(COL)을 3시간 처리하였다. 다시 배양액을 교환하고 24시간 동안 배양하여 prostaglandin $E_2\;(PGE_2)$, interleukin-6(IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-$\alpha$(TNF-$\alpha$) 및 matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) 생산을 측정하고 통계적으로 비교하였으며 cytoskeletal protein actin 변화를 관찰하기위하여 면역형광염색하고 형광현미경으로 관찰하여 다음과 같은 결과를 얻었다: 1. CB 처리군에서 $PGE_2$ 생산이 증가되는 경향을 보였고 COL 처리군에서는 약물농도에 비례하여 증가하였다. 2. IL-6 생산은 CB농도 1.0 ${\mu}g/ml$일때를 제외하고 증가되었다. 3. TNF-$\alpha$도 CB 농도가 1.0 ${\mu}g/ml$ 일때를 제외하고 증가하였다. 4. MMP-1 생산은 CB 처리군에서 감소하는 경향을 보이고 COL 처리군에서는 변화되지 않았다. 5. CB처리군에서는 cytoskeletal actin stress fibers가 사라지고 세포모양이 둥글어지는 경향을 보였다. 이상의 결과로 미루어 보아 cytoskeletal rearrangement는 골모세포유사세포의 활성, 특히 $PGE_2$, IL-6, 및 TNF-$\alpha$같은 paracrine/autocrine factor의 생산과 관련있는 것으로 보인다. The cytoskeleton has been shown to form a network, connecting the extracelluar matrix via integrin with the nucleus and the cytoplasmic constituents of the cell. It is therefore assumed that the cytoskeleton may mediate signals generated by perturbations originating in the matrix. The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of cytoskeletal change on osteoblastic cell activities. The author cultured osteoblastic cells obtained from neonatal mouse calvaria. The cells were teated with cytochalasin B(CB) or colchicine (COL) at four concentrations for 3 hours and after another 24 hours the conditioned media was collected and assayed for prostaglandin $E_2\;(PGE_2)$, interleukin-6(IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-$\alpha$ (TNF-$\alpha$) and matrix metalloproteinase-1(MMP-1). In addition, the cytoskeletal protein actin were observed by immuno-fluorescence. The results were as follows: 1. The production of $PGE_2$ showed the tendency to be increased in CB-treated group. $PGE_2$ was increased in COL-treated group dose-dependantly, 2. IL-6 production, in CB-treated group, was increased, except at 1.0 ${\mu}g/ml$. IL-6 was induced in COL-treated group. 3. TNF-$\alpha$ production was increased in CB-treated group, except at 1.0 ${\mu}g/ml$, and in COL-treated group, that was increased. 4. The MMP-1 production was decreased in CB-treated soup and was not changed in COL-treated group, which could be selectively visualized by immunoblotting with monospecific antibody. 5. The cytoskeletal actin stress fibers were disappeared and the cells showed to be rounded in CB-treated group. These results indicated that there are a relationship between the cytoskeletal rearrangements and osteoblastic cell activities, especially in release of paracrine/autocrine factors, such as $PGE_2$, IL-6, and TNF-$\alpha$.

      • KCI등재

        간 이식 소아에서 발생한 이식 후 림프 증식 질환: 단일 기관에서의 21년 경험

        이정화,고재성,서정기,이남준,서경석,이건욱,강경훈,Lee, Jung-Hwa,Ko, Jae-Sung,Seo, Jeong-Kee,Yi, Nam-Joon,Suh, Kyung-Suk,Lee, Kuhn-Uk,Kang, Gyeong-Hoon 대한소아소화기영양학회 2009 Pediatric gastroenterology, hepatology & nutrition Vol.12 No.2

        Purpose: To analyze the clinical spectrum of posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) after liver transplantation in children. Methods: From January 1988 to June 2009, we retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 8 PTLD cases among 148 pediatric patients underwent liver transplantation. The age at transplantation, time of presentation after transplantation, clinical manifestations, histologic diagnosis, results of EBV (Epstein-Barr virus) assessments, managements and outcomes of PTLD were investigated. Results: The prevalence of PTLD in liver transplant pediatric recipients was 5.4% (8 of 148). The mean age of patients was 25.4${\pm}$21.3 months (range 10 to 67 months). Seven of 8 patients (87.5%) underwent liver transplantation before 1 year of age. The common clinical presentations were persistent fever (8 of 8, 100%) and bloody diarrhea (6 of 8, 75%). PTLD was diagnosed with gastrointestinal endoscopic biopsies in five patients and surgical biopsies in three. Histologic findings showed early lesion in three patients, polymorphic in two, and monomorphic in three. Burkitt lymphoma and lymphoblastic lymphoma were found in two of 3 monomorphic patients. Seven of 8 patients were found with EBV-positive. Eight patients were treated with dose reduction of immunosuppressants and infusion of ganciclovir. Rituximab was added to four patients. PTLD were successfully managed in all patients except one who died of sepsis during chemotherapy. Conclusion: Major risk factor of PTLD was to undergo liver transplantation before 1 year of age. Continuous monitoring for EBV viral load and gastrointestinal endoscopic biopsy may be useful to early detection of PTLD. 목 적: 간 이식 소아에서 발생한 PTLD의 경험을 통해 발현 양상, 발병 위험 인자, 진단 방법, 치료 및 예후에 영향을 줄 수 있는 요인들을 알아보았다. 방 법: 1988년 1월부터 2009년 6월까지 서울대학교 어린이병원에서 간 이식을 받은 소아 148명 중 PTLD로 진단된 8명의 환아들을 대상으로 후향적 분석을 하였다. 이식당시 나이, 이식 후 PTLD 증상이 나타날 때 까지의 기간, 임상적 증상, 조직학적 소견, EBV 검사 결과, 치료 및 경과에 대해 조사하였다. 결 과: 간 이식 후 PTLD의 유병률은 5.4%였고, 발생시기는 조기 PTLD가 6명(75%), 후기 PTLD가 2명(25%)이었다. 대상 환아의 간 이식 당시 나이는 평균8.1${\pm}$4.4개월로, 12개월 미만이 7명(87.5%), 12개월 이후가 1명(12.5%)이었다. PTLD 진단 시 주증상은 발열, 설사, 혈변이었고 모두 장이나 장간막 림프절 침범이 있었다. 3명은 개복 수술로 5명은 상부 위장관 내시경이나 대장 내시경을 통한 조직 검사로 진단되었다. 조직학적 진단은 early lesion이 3명, polymorphic PTLD 2명, monomorphic PTLD 1명, Burkitt 림프종 1명, B 세포 림프종이 1명이었다. EBV는 7명에서 양성을 보였다. 치료는 전례에서 1차 치료로 면역억제제를 중지하고 항바이러스제(ganciclovir)를 투여 하였다. 4명의 환아들에서 rituximab을 추가하였고 Burkitt 림프종과 B 세포림프종으로 진단된 환아들은 각각 항암 치료를 병행하였다. B 세포 림프종으로 진단되어 치료 중에 패혈증으로 1명이 사망하였으며 나머지 7명은 호전되었다. 결 론: 1세 미만에 간 이식을 받은 경우가 PTLD 발생의 주요한 위험 인자였으며, EBV viral load의 지속적인 감시와 위장관 내시경을 통한 조직 검사가 PTLD 조기진단에 유용할 것으로 생각한다.

      • SCOPUSKCI등재

        Ⅰ급 및 Ⅱ급 부정교합자의 과두변위에 관한 두부방사선계측학적 연구

        이정화,박창서,Lee Jeong Hwa,Park Chang Seo 대한영상치의학회 1986 Imaging Science in Dentistry Vol.16 No.1

        The purpose of this investigation was to know correlation of mean values between centric occlusion and centric relation by the cephalogram in Angle's Class Ⅰ and Ⅲ malocclusion subjects. 22 adults with Angle's Class Ⅰ malocclusion (17 men and 5 women, 21 to 27 years of age) and 14 adults with Angle's Class Ⅲ malocclusion (10 men and 4 women, 21 to 27 years of age) were selected from the dental students in Yonsei University. Each subject was given two lateral cephalometric radiographies and cephalometric analysis was performed. All data from these analyses was recorded and statistically processed with CYBER computer system. 1. The results were obtained as follows: There was a strong positive correlation between centric occlusion and centric relation in all subjects with Angle's Class Ⅰ and Ⅲ malocclusion. 2. In Angle's Class Ⅰ malocclusion, measurements in lower facial height revealed significant difference between centric occlusion and centric relation (P<0.05). In Angle's Class Ⅲmalocclusion, measurements in facial axis angle, mandibular plane angle, convexity of A point, lower incisor protrusion, lower facial height revealed significant difference between centric occlusion and centric relation (P<0.05). 3. When the mandible was moved from centric occlusion to centric relation, the mean distance of mandibular movement was 1.27㎜ (0.2-2.8㎜) in Angle's Class Ⅰ malocclusion, 1.70㎜ (0.55-4.15㎜) in Angle's Class Ⅲ malocclusion, and 1.44㎜ (0.2-4.15㎜) in all subjects.

      • 고전 자료 디지털화사업에서의 신출한자 처리 개선방안

        이정화,Lee, Jeong-Hwa 한국한의학연구원 2004 한국한의학연구원논문집 Vol.10 No.1

        As entering the information age of the 21st century, Korea is actively processing many digitalizing businesses related to information source of the Korean academic science at the government level based on the Korean advanced digital technologies, which makes them more evolved through the internet networks in Korea. The definition of 'Newly found ideographs(新出漢字)' are made by researching and extracting from the old Chinese documents through the digitalizing process and they are not registered yet among the block of Unicode & extended Chinese characters those are existent international standard. Presently Korea is in the middle of brisk developing computerized old documents in the huge scale. Meanwhile, the international standard of Chinese characters in mostly Asian countries where using them is processing and developing by IRG. Therefore, Korean processing works is very important which are included extracting precisely 'Newly found ideographs' founded from building its database, organizing as an international standard code, submitting the International organization and finally registering as the best standard code.

      • SCOPUSKCI등재

        원형 탈모증 환자에서의 불안 , 우울 및 정신과적 증상에 관한 연구

        이정화,김유찬,박향준,신용우,이경규 ( Jeong Hwa Lee,You Chan Kim,Hyang Joon Park,Yong Woo Cinn,Kyung Gue Lee ) 대한피부과학회 1997 大韓皮膚科學會誌 Vol.35 No.5

        Background: Alopecia areata may causesignificant interference in social interaction. Despite the controversy concerning the existence of specific personality exhibited by patients with alopecia areata, psychological and social factors have long been considered important factors that have influence on the course of the disease. Objective : The purpose of this study was to investigate the degree of anxiety, depression and psychological symptoms of patients with alopecia areata and their relationship between psychological factors and clinical characteristics. Methods : Beck Depression Inventory(BDI), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory(STAI) and Symptom Check List-90-Revision(SCL-90-R) were carried out on 20 patients with alopecia areata and 20 controls. Results : 1.According to the age and sex distributions of the patients, the majority of conditions occurred between 20 and 30 years of age(approximately 80%), with the mean age being 28. 10 patients were women and 10 patients were men. 2. For STAI scores, the patient group was higher than the control group, 1) State Anxiety . 49.25+8.01 vs 40.70+6.33(p < 0.05) 2) Trait Anxiety : 46.50 +8.41 vs 39.80=6.49(p < 0.05) 3. For BDI score, the patient group was higher than control group, 14.90+6.89 vs 9.5+5.70(p< 0.05), but there were no significant differences between male patients and female patients. 4. For SCL 90 R scores, the patient group was higher than control group-phobic anxiety, psychoticism, somatization, anxiety, depression, hostility, interpersonal sensitivity, global severity index, positive symptom total, positive symptom distress index(p < 0.05). Conclusion : We suggest there is a relationship between clinical characteristics of alopecia areata and psychological stress. (Korean J Dermatol 1997;35(5): 837-846)

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