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내역서를 기반으로 하는 국내 공공공사의 기성 산정 방법은 작업진도의 산출과 무관한 기성고 산정과 많은 양의 서류작성과 복잡한 절차 등의 많은 문제점이 있다. 국가계약법에서 정식과 약식 기성 산정 방법으로 구분되며, 이중에서 약식 기성 산정 방법은 절차와 신청서류를 간소화하여 이와 같은 문제점을 상당 부분 해결 가능하지만 이의 활용이 미비한 실정이다. 본 연구에서는 작업분류체계의 수립과 이를 기반으로 선정된 대표공종의 진도율을 이용하여 기성을 산정하는 방법을 제안하였으며, 자연형 하천공사의 실적공사 데이터를 수집하여 이를 적용을 통한 국내 공공공사의 기성 산정 방법과의 비교를 통해, 기성 산정을 위한 관리항목의 감소로 인한 업무 부담의 감소와 빠르고 효과적인 기성 산정을 통한 업무효율의 증가 등 그 효율성을 검증하였다. 이러한 기성 산정 방법론의 도입은 기존 방법의 문제점 해결을 통한 업무효율의 증가뿐만 아니라 향후 공공공사의 사업관리에 있어서 그 효율성이 검증된 공정-공사비 통합관리의 기반을 다지는 데 있어 큰 의미가 있다. In domestic public works, there are several problems in the measurement of payments based on the bill of quantity, which doesn't match with the activity progress rate, heavy paper works and complicated procedures. It can be classified formal and simplified method. By using the simplified method, it can be solved many problems by summarizing the procedure, but is not generally used. This paper proposes a payment method by progress measurement for specified activity based on WBS(Work Breakdown Structure) verifying efficiency which reduced cost account and advanced work on payment compare to method of domestic public works using the data about construction of eco-river. This method will be an important contribution on being a base for cost-schedule integrated management which were verified and also improving efficiency on measuring payment.
본 논문은 태국 영화 '배드 지니어스(ฉลาดเกมส์โกง)'에 나타난 욕망의 생산방식과 주체의 특성을 탐구하였다. 들뢰즈는 욕망의 생산과정에 있어서 ①사회적 생산과 ②욕망하는 생산으로 구분하였다. 영화의 초반부에서 '린'과 '뱅크'의 욕망은 자본주의 터전에 예속된 사회적 생산으로 비슷한 양상을 보였지만, 후반부에서는 둘의 욕망이 달라진 양상을 보여준다. 돈은 자본주의 사회에서 현대인의 삶을 존속시키는 인간 욕망의 주요 대상이다. 영화에서 린은 한 과목 당 3천 바트를 지불할 테니 STIC시험지의 답을 공유하자는 제안을 받는다. 린은 돈의 액수를 계산해 본 후, 제안을 수락한다. 뱅크는 처음에는 거절하지만 결국 STIC시험의 커닝 행위에 가담하게 되며 궁극적으로 돈에 집착하고 예속되는 인물이 된다. 린과 뱅크의 이러한 모습은 인간의 욕망이 자본주의의 질서에 순응하고 또 거기에 고착화되어 가는 사회적 생산방식을 나타낸다. 이에 따라 린과 뱅크는 자본주의 사회의 울타리 속에 자신의 욕망을 묶어두는 정주된 주체의 모습을 드러내고 있다. 그러나 후반부에서 린은 뱅크와 다른 욕망의 흐름을 보여준다. 린은 새로운 사회적 질서를 생산하는 욕망의 흐름을 보여주고 있기 때문이다. 후반부에 린은 자신의 돈까지 뱅크에게 주며 돈에 연연하지 않는 모습을 보여준다. 그리고 린의 욕망은 자신의 경험을 토대로 훌륭한 교사가 되고자 하는 것으로 흘러감으로써 욕망하는 생산방식을 보여준다. 이러한 린은 돈에 대한 욕망에서 또 다른 욕망으로 탈영토화 함으로써, 탈주하는 주체의 양상을 나타낸다. 린에게 있어 이러한 욕망하는 생산의 과정들은 무한히 반복해서 실행될 것이고, 이러한 창조적 과정의 실행을 통해서 사회를 변화시킬 것이다. This paper explores the production method of desire and the characteristics of the subject in the Thai film 'Bad Genius'. In the production process of desire, Deleuze divided into ① Social-Production and ② Desiring-Production. In the early part of the film, the desires of 'Lynn' and 'Bank' showed similar aspects as Social-Production subordinated to capitalism, but in the second half, the desires of the two are different. Money is the main object of human desire to sustain the life of modern people in a capitalist society. In the film, Lynn receives an offer to share her answers of test paper, paying 3,000 baht per course. She accepts the offer when she knows that she has a large amount of money she can receive. At first, Bank rejects the offer, but eventually he gets involved in cheating on the STIC exam, and ultimately becomes a person who is obsessed with money. Lynn and Bank represents the Social-Production by which humans conform to the order of capitalism and become fixed there. They are revealing the image of a settled subject who binds their desires within the fence of capitalist society. However, in the second half of the film Lynn shows a different flow of desire to Bank. This is because she shows the flow of desire that produces Social-Production, that is, a new social order. She goes to the bank and gives her own money to him. She doesn't care about money anymore. Her desire becomes a good teacher, based on her own experience. By deterritorializing from the desire for money to another desire, she represents the aspect of the subject who escapes. For Lynn, these Desiring-Production processes will be executed endlessly, and through the implement of these creative processes, society will be changed.
The purpose of this study is to examine the influence of protecting ethnic identity on the education policy of the Thai government. To do this, I compared with the Nong Tao and the Nong Monta Karen village in Thailand, which show differences in their identity, and analyzed them using Gramsci’s theory. The 'Muwaki School' in Nong Tao village follows the education policy stipulated by the government. This was due to economic problems, the lack of will of the villagers, and the lack of teachers to teach the Karen culture. As a result, Nong Tao villagers have national identity by adapting to the government's assimilation education policy. Nong Monta villagers, however, wanted to inherit ethnic identity through school education. They taught the students government and the Karen curriculum together through a dual curriculum. As a result, they could protect their ethnic identity. First, protecting the ethnic identity of the villagers, the school established by the villagers was recognized through the ‘National Educational Act (1999)’ and became the basis for the announcement of the 'Promotion of Non-Formal and Informal education Act (2008)'. Second, as a civil society organization that influenced the establishment of school, the resistance for moral reform of the hegemony of the ruling class by IMPECT affected the enactment of Article 18 of the Education Act. Third, the Karen teachers made it possible who graduated at the age of thirteen at Muwaki school able to issue a diploma and enter general secondary school. This Karen teacher of Muwaki School shows the role of organic intellectuals.
In this article, I have examined how the Karen hill tribe of Thailand resisted to the government's "Policy of Integration" in the Karen viewpoint and the Thai government interactions. In particular, I looked at the Karen in relation to “Zomia” to understand how they resisted to the Thai government. Zomia is a high mountain area where ethnic minority people live and it contains the meaning of resistance and escape. However, Hinlatnai Karen villagers who living in Zomia not only resisted or escaped as James Scott insisted, but they fought by the direct demonstration and claimed their demands. I explain the hill tribes living in Zomia as ‘resistance identity’ because they could resist through direst demonstrations and preserve their cultural and historical heritage to the government. The Thai government implemented the nation-building through the nationalization of the space during the process of making 'the people'. The prohibition of the traditional farming method, shifting cultivation, and the forest policy were not for the hill tribes but for the expansion of the territory and the securing of manpower. In addition, the Thai government's imposition of Thai language and Buddhist beliefs was also part of the nation-building. Hinlatnai Karen villagers formed Northern Farmers Network in collaboration with other 117 hill tribes, social and non-governmental organizations. And in 1995 they raised massive protests which more than 10,000 protesters participated. The villagers also have scientifically proved that the shifting cultivation is suitable for Karen's cultural ecosystem and is a nature-friendly lifestyle. They tried to maintain their traditional culture by focusing on cultural experts called Hiko. Village groups and village fund also became the basis of the traditional culture and consciousness inheritance of them. Finally Thai government established ‘Karen Livelihoods Restoration Policy’ in 2010 and Hinlatnai village were designated as ‘Cultural Special Zone’ to admit and protect their culture. These changes of the village are the result of the Karen resistance and the interaction with the Thai government.
This study examines to reveal the characteristics of the ‘Karen Livelihood Restoration Policy’ which decided in 2010 with regard to multiculturalism. For this analysis, I utilized Will Kymlicka’s multicultural theory and ‘9 Multiculturalism Policy Index for Indigenous Peoples’. As a liberal multiculturalist, he argued to protect cultural rights of ethnic minorities. First, he insisted to protect personal freedom of ethnic minorities, and second, he mentioned that the rights of ethnic minorities should promote equal relations between social groups. Through these, I reveal the characteristics of Thai policy targeted Indigenous people, and scored the Multiculturalism Policy Index in order to evaluate the degree of the Policy. Thai Policy reveals “Multiculturalism Policy” by the Policy Index; ③ Treaties, ④ Cultural Rights, ⑤ Customary Law, ⑦ Distinct Status, and “Partial Multiculturalism Policy” by Policy Index; ①Land Rights, ②Self- Government Rights, ⑥ Representation in Central Government, ⑧ International Instruments, ⑨Affirmative action. Scored such Thai policy according to Will Kymlicka’s theory is 6.5 point so that it can be called “Strong Multiculturalism Policy” This policy understands and recognizes the identity of Thai ethnic minority, so it can be future direction to predict Thai ethnic minority policy. Therefore, the result generally insisted that minority policy of Thailand from assimilation or integration to multiculturalism policy.
Anamorphosis is highly favored in modern days as the atmosphere of pursuing unusual manners is growing while transformation and distortion of images are freely available. This research is to understand the affect of these distorted images on space designs and the close connection between anamorphosis and visual perceptions, and to identify the new perceptual phenomenon created through it, and the methods of expressing those. Four expressional methods were defined through the process of studying Anamorphosis based on its definition by Niceron, examining artworks such as paintings and photographs, and case-studying example spaces of visual perception experiments. Expressing anamorphosis through visual perceptions are broadly categorized to directional, dimensional, flatness, and optical. The analysis of 10 case projects suggests that the experimental spaces offer joys of finding and interpreting metaphorical forms and meanings caused by the four characteristic categories above. Also, they artificially show the boundaries between reality and virtual spaces in 2-dimensional or 3-dimensional spaces, and form hyper-boundaries, new experience, and an internal mechanism that is vague and chaotic. Therefore, this research concludes that anamorphosis which is a distorted perspective, is not only a simple measure to overcome perspectival errors, but is an existence suitable to the current era, that will extend its potential and value in spatial design.
본 연구에서는 다양한 약리 활성 및 항산화 활성이 높다고 보고된 신선초 추출물을 대상으로 in vitro 및 in vivo계에서 알코올성 간세포 손상을 유도하여 그 효과를 검토하였다. 알코올 산화 효소인 cytochrome P4502E1(CYP2E1)이 과발현된 HepG2 세포에서 200 mM의 알코올과 신선초 추출물을 투여하였을 때 농도 의존적으로 세포생존률 및 catalase(CAT) 활성이 증가하였다. In vitro에서 신선초 추출물의 보호 효과를 확인한 후 7주령의 C57BL/6J 마우스에 알코올과 신선초 추출물 20, 100 mg/kg BW/d를 급여한 결과 혈중 ALT, AST, GGT의 농도는 대조군보다 유의적으로 증가한 알코올군에 비해 신선초 추출물을 급여한 군에서 유의적 감소했음을 확인할 수 있었다. 그뿐만 아니라 알코올 투여로 세포변성과 지방구가 보이는 간 조직의 변화가 신선초 투여로 의해 대조군과 유사하게 관찰되었다. 항산화 효소의 변화와 지질과산화 수준은 대조군보다 알코올군이 유의적 증가했으며, 신선초 추출물 급여군에서 감소하는 결과를 보였고, 특히 신선초 20 mg/kg BW/d로 급여한 군에서 CAT, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, malondialdehyde(MDA) 등의 유의적 감소를 보였다. 이 같은 변화를 매개했다고 생각되는 CYP2E1의 발현과 활성은 대조군보다 알코올 투여군에서 유의적으로 상승하였으며, 특히 항산화 효소와 MDA 함량에서 유의적 감소했던 20 mg/kg BW/d의 신선초 투여군에서 유의적 감소하는 것으로 나타났다. 그러므로 이는 신선초 추출물에 함유된 luteolin, quercetin, chalcone 화합물 등의 성분에 의해 알코올 유도 산화적 스트레스가 감소하였다고 생각되며, 신선초 추출물은 알코올 대사과정에서 산화적 스트레스를 억제하여 간 보호 효과가 있을 것으로 생각한다. We investigated the hepatoprotective effects of Angelica keiskei Koidzumi extract (AK) in HepG2-overexpressing cytochrome P4502E1 (CYP2E1) and C57BL/6J mice. In HepG2 cells expressing CYP2E1, cell viability and catalase activity in the ethanol-AK co-treated group significantly increased compared to those in the ethanol-treated group. In the in vivo study with C57BL/6J mice, the AK-supplemented group with ethanol liquid diet showed significantly reduced hepatic markers, including serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and γ-glutamyl transferase, compared to the ethanol group without AK supplementation. AK supplementation (20 mg/kg BW/d) also significantly attenuated reactive oxygen species generation and malondialdehyde level. Notably, a low dose of AK supplementation (20 mg/kg BW/d) suppressed expression of hepatic CYP2E1 and inhibited CYP2E1 enzyme activity. These data indicate that a low dose of AK supplementation could restrain alcohol-induced hepatic damage mediated by CYP2E1.
The consumers of the modern society tend to find their images through the product itself by enjoying the process of consuming the products However, the majority of existing commercial markets focuses mainly on the products’ formation in uniformed space with the lack of understanding on consumer’s personality. Basically the form of Brand Communication through its spaces increase the experience of brand to consumers since it makes direct contact with consumers. Corporate brand identity is intended to be communicated well to consumers what is important than the brand communication strategy. In addition, brand strategy, which inevitably requires a commercial space sales strategy has a close relationship with VMD. VMD in the future of the merchandise planning, marketing promotions, space, esthetics, ease of shopping, etc. for various types of customers to experience the brand and corporate image can serve as a strategy to differentiate the meaning of that is being expanded into. Based on this observation domestic flagship store brands and consumer communications, and directly experience the brand and brand identity in the space required in order to be communicated well to consumers what is important than the brand communication strategy was analyzed.