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This study was undertaken to investigate the severity of depression and to analyze various factors related to depression in chronic back pain patients in urban-rural areas . In this study, 30 patients who suffered from back pain more than 6 months, and 30 normal subjects who had similar demographic characteristics as the patient group were evaluated using the Back Depression Inventory(BDI). Various factors such as age, sex, causes of back pain, vocational history, pain continuity, visual analogue scale(VAS), duration of pain, type of management, and urban or rural residence were recorded for the study group. The results are 1) The study group revealed higher BDI scores than the control group(p<0.05). 2) The patients who were older and had higher VAS, longer duration of pain, or previous history of surgical management for back pain, and an urban 033residence revealed higher BDI scores(p<0.05). 3) The BDI scores were not significantly influenced by the subjects' sex, causes of back pain, pain continuity, and vocational history in the study group(p>0.05). From this study, we concluded that a Psychosocial approach is required for the management of chronic back pain patients. Also, it is necessary to assess the factors, which are making depression worse in other chronic diseases for comprehensive rehabilitation.
Purpose: Talar fractures are uncommon and so surgeon's experience in the treatment of the talar fracture is limited. This study was undertaken to evaluate the incidence, associated injuries, complications of talar fracture and results of treatment. Materials and Methods: Authors experienced 15 cases of the talar fractures treated at Ajou University Hospital from 1995 to 1998 with minimal 1 year follow-up period and obtained following result. Results: Of 15 cases, fall down injury was the most common cause of injury(11/15). 4 ipsilateral medial malleolar fractures, 2 lateral malleolar fractures and other associated injury was occured. According to the Hawkins' classification 5 cases in type I, 1 cases in type II, 2 cases in type III were observed. 2 posttraumatic arthritis, l skin necrosis, 1 avascular necrosis, were observed as complications but nonunion was not observed. Conclusions: We suggest that early and accurate anatomical reduction and rigid internal fixation of the fracture dislocation of the talus can prevent complications such as avascular necrosis, posttraumatic arthritis.
Wave amplitudes and amplitude ratios between different wave types carry information about variations of medium properties with depth and time. The most information is contained in the reflection and transmission coefficients, which depend on the physical properties of contacting media and boundary conditions. In this paper, the range of variations in reflection and transmission coefficients of plane waves generated at boundaries with different properties is examined. Numerical simulations of coefficients were carried out for the models of rigid and non-rigid contact between isotropic and anisotropic media. At the rigid contact between isotropic media, amplitudes of generated waves and their ratios vary within relatively narrow limits while the physical parameters of the media may accept various reasonable values. In anisotropic media, coefficients depend not only on the slowness contrast, but also on the wave polarization directions, which may vary considerably in space. Amplitude ratios of generated waves may vary significantly with the incident angle, and the amplitudes of converted waves may dominate or be comparable with monotype waves. Introducing non-rigid contact between media considerably broadens the range of coefficient variations. In contrast to the rigid contact, the incident energy goes predominantly into reflected and converted waves. The amplitude of converted waves may be relatively large and exceed the amplitudes of monotype and incident waves. In general, reflection and transmission coefficients generated at non-rigid contact depend on the values of stiffness coefficients and their ratio.