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This paper studies the art world of Lee Jungseob by applying Analytical Psychology of Jung in his artworks. The children depicted in Daehyang Lee Jungseob’s works are characterized as an object of life painted mostly based on his memories rather than from the observations of actual models. An artist sees the outside world thorough his mental structure and therefore accordingly, his views will change when said mental structure changes. The images depicted by an artist thus comprise an important element for understanding his work. Therefore, the relationship between the topics and objects as depicted in Lee’s art focused on Lee’s psychological changes as caused by the historical time period that he lived in, the external shocks that he personally experienced, and his traumas, such as his own son’s death, separation from his family, and the failure of his art exhibit, all of which became the basis of his art world. Because an artist completes his work by conveying his inner world within the work, his work helps the artist to understand himself easily by making the artist focus on the ambiguous emotions embedded within him. However, a question is raised, namely which psychological approach is needed to reach that certain understanding. The nature, characters, and experiences of an artist are related to the way the artist expresses himself in his work, and the experiences are saved in the artist’s memory either internally or externally. As psychiatrist and psychologist Jung (Carl Gustav Jung, 1875-1961) said about images, "everything we do not know about or we always seem to have forgotten but being aware of is an image and an image is a mind." In other words, experiences are saved as images in the mind. Furthermore, Jung divided the creative work of art or literature into "Psychological type of creative work (Psychologische Art des Schaffens)" and "Visionary type of creative work(Visonare Art des Schaffesn)". The former ‘psychological type of creative work’ refers to a method of expressing the most intense life experience in the artworks, with the purpose of expanding the possibility of the experience in an individual’s daily event or fact and delivering it to others in the most impressive way. At this time, the primary matter(Urstoff) is eventually the daily event of fact that is embraced by the writer or poet. However, the latter "visionary type of creative work" originates from the most unfamiliar and the strangest original experience(Urerlebnis) that a human spirit can have. It is a process of identifying the spiritual characteristics of an artist in creating his artworks. In the context of psychological meanings of the materials in the paintings, the peach is used to express the yearning for a wish in a visionary way, while the motif of the string is a psychological type of creative work and is a symbolic expression of self that is entwined in a complex relationship of parents and children. The blue crap is a psychological reflection of unstable state of reality. As such, the types of children in Lee Jungseob’s paintings may be referred to as the creative types of his psychological and visionary reflection that expresses his mental world.
The study aims to provide useful implications and insights for designing Practical Korean language curriculum for the future by exploring the characteristics found in the Korean language curriculum experience using K-POP from the perspective of the participants. This study was designed using the ‘case study’ method to understand the experience in the Korean language curriculum using K-POP. First, looking at the characteristics of the contents shown in the experience of the Korean language curriculum using K-POP, learners tended to pursue the usefulness of knowledge with interest and acquired content focusing on sympathetic messages. Second, in terms of the learning method shown in the Korean language curriculum experience using K-POP, learners developed their learning experience based on discovery learning. In addition, they used the shadowing method, one of the language improvement techniques, and showed an embodied cognitive process that leads to active use of direct speech and writing from passive language learning to listening, reading, and understanding. Third, as a characteristic of learning outcomes that reflect Korean language education experiences using K-POP, learners collected and shared K-POP-related materials, forming a new participatory culture, and improving their online content media literacy skills. This study reveals practical information on what experience Korean language education using K-POP provides from the perspective of learning subjects. The practical reports and analysis results of the case actually provided important clues for reorganizing and designing the curriculum. (International Youth Media Press Doshisha Women’s College of Liberal Arts)
This paper focuses on resistance and fury in August Wilson’ Ma Rainey’s Black Bottom. Ma Rainey gained the nickname ‘Mother of the Blues’ in the decade of the 1920s. She moved from the Deep South to urban Chicago to record songs with her band. The white producer, Sturdyvant, and the white manager Irvin try to take advantage of Ma’s singing talent for financial gain without respecting her as a human being and famous blues singer. Ma Rainey strives to get white people to treat her the way she wants to be treated. She fights against the inevitable discrimination and injustice African Americans had to endure. For her, the blues is symbolic of resistance. A young black trumpet player, Levee, is an ambitious musician who dreams of recording his own music in the new style of the era. He represses his own pain and fury from a tragic family history stemming from the persecution of whites. He could not move from the Imaginary toward the Symbolic. This means he lacks having the signifier of Lacan’s Name of the Father. He could never reach the stage of the desiring subject and thus remains as merely a little child. He bears his frustration badly about his crushed dreams caused by white people. In this poor state, he can not control himself, and releases his fury by murdering his black colleague, Toledo. (Sungkyul University)
무용은 '몸'을 표현의 도구로 사용하는 예술이다. 또한 한 번 행해지면 소멸되는 무형체성과 일회성을 특징으로 한다. 즉 무용은 살아있는 몸의 예술이기 때문에 문자로 기록하는 것은 난해하다. 오늘날 영상이라는 디지털매체의 발달은 기록을 용이하게 했지만 이 역시 여전히 무용작품의 시각적인 면만을 기록한다는 한계를 지닌다. 이러한 어려움에도 불구하고 춤의 기록과 보존이 중요한 것은 과거와 현재의 만남이자 현재적 시점에서 재현과 해석을 할 수 있는 근거가 되기 때문이다. 무용가의 기억을 통한 기록방법인 구술사는 이를 가능하게 열어준다. 무용가의 언어로 자신의 삶과 예술을 기억하며 채록하고 연구하는 구술사는 무용의 기록방법으로서 무용가를 주체적으로 드러낸다. 또한 이를 근거로 현재적 시각에서 무용사 뿐 만 아니라 무용이 사회와 맺게 되는 상호작용을 읽어냄으로써 역사를 보는 다양한 관점을 지니게 한다. 따라서 무용분야 구술사는 무용가의 구술을 채록하여 기록으로 남긴다는 의의와 함께 여기에 함께 기록되어진 '인간과 사회적 관계'들을 남기는 것이다. 이렇게 기록되어진 무용분야 구술사는 분석과 해석이 더 해져 무용사 읽기, 역사 읽기의 창이 된다. Dance is an art that includes not only art historical facts, but also a series of processes for dancers' body, choreography, and the creation of entire process of dances and their lives. In other words, dance is the art of embodying the experience and consciousness of the dancer as the subject, and embodying it through the physical body, and therefore, the existing empirical study which relies solely on the literature in the history of dance study is difficult to deliver a complete history. Oral history is a new methodology historical writing that overcomes the limitations of research methods based on literature centered documents. Oral history in the field of dance is that the dancer becomes the subject of the history of dance's narrative. The memory and testimony of a dancer can become a history, complement the missing parts of the documentary record, and amount to analysis and interpretation to attempt the history of dance from various perspectives. The history of dance through oral history analysis thus generates another view from the literature. The oral history is acted as a prism that can explore the sociocultural discourse of the time and the history of dance. As a new academic challenge for the history of dance field, I expect to be able to review the artistic, social, and cultural functions and roles of dance beyond the limit of existing literature-oriented history study and to be able to progress to various the history of dance.
Unlike other educational spaces in school facilities, restrooms have remained unpleasant spaces without reflecting the change in social awareness and students' lifestyle. In the process of the 'School Restroom Environment Remodeling Project in Seoul' by means of "user participatory design method", this study aimed to suggest a design of the school restroom environment responding to the different needs of actual users, who are students and school staffs. By surveying them, it was revealed that they have a variety of respective behavioral patterns and spatial needs according to their status, gender, age and working period. Implications of this study are as follows; First, it is necessary to establish a separate restroom facility standards that respond to the characteristics of elementary school students. Second, there should be an expansive approach to widely accommodate with the users' needs that were found out through 'user participation', more than just repairing pre-existing space. Third, it needs to have critical review of the maintenance and operation system itself as well as the improvement of the school restroom environment.
목적: 본 연구의 목적은 미국 아이오와 대학에서 개발된 Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC)을 사용하여 신경기계 병동과 정형외과 병동에 근무하는 간호사들이 가장 빈번히 수행하는 간호중재를 파악함으로서 이러한 부서의 간호중재 리스트를 개발하는데 있다. 그리고 확인된 간호중재의 리스트를 미국 간호협회의 핵심 간호중재 목록과 비교함으로써 양국간의 간호중재의 유사성과 차이를 비교함으로써 한국간호의 발전을 도모하는데 있다. 방법: 8개의3차병원 및 종합병원 근무하는 간호사에게 NIC을 번역하여 소개한 뒤 가장 자주 수행하는 간호중재 30개를 선택하게 하였다. 선택된 간호중재는 빈도와 백분율 이용하여 분석하였고 미국의 핵심간호 중재목록과 영역(domain)별, 분류군 (class)별로 비교하였다. 결과: 신경기계 병동은 30개의 간호중재를 정형외과 병동은 34개를 핵심간호중재로 확인하였다. 한국과 미국의 간호중재를 비교해본 결과 신경기계 병동의 간호중재와 미국American Association of Neuroscience Nurses (AANN) 의 핵심간호중재 목록과는 단지 5개의 간호중재가 일치하였지만 정형외과 병동의 간호중재목록은 미국의 National Association of orthopaedic Nurses (NAON) 의 핵심중재목록과 27개의 간호중재가 일치되어 더 많은 유사성을 나타내었다. 두 나라의 간호중재를 영역(domain)별로 비교해보면 한국 간호사의 간호중재는 미국간호단체의 핵심간호 중재 목록보다 신체적 간호에 보다 많은 편중을 보였다. 결론: 한국간호사의 간호중재가 신체적 간호중재에 집중되어 있으므로 환자간호에 보다 전인적인 간호중재가 수행될 수 있도록 노력해야 할 것이다. 그리고 본 연구를 통해 개발된 핵심 간호중재 목록은 병원의 간호정보시스템을 개발하는데 사용될 수 있으며, 간호지식의 확장이나 staffing, 간호 수가화, 그리고 궁극적으로는 간호의 효과성 연구를 자극할 수 있을 것이다.
무용과 영상 테크놀러지의 결합으로 시작된 무용영화는 새로운 장르로 자리매김하며 발전되어오고 있다. 해외에서는 이미 1950년대부터 실험적인 무용영화가 창작되었고 댄스필름협회가 조직되었으며 많은 무용영화제가 개최되고 있다. 그러나 국내에서 무용영화라는 장르에 대한 인식과 창작활동이 본격적으로 시작된 것은 얼마 되지 않았다. 이러한 상황 속에서 '서울무용영화제' 개최와 '댄스필름 프로젝트'의 창작적 실험은 국내의 무용영화 발전에 중요하다. 따라서 본 논문에서는 무용영화에 대한 개념과 발전과정, 해외 여러 무용영화제와 '서울무용영화제'의 현황과 특징을 살펴보고, '서울무용영화제'와 '댄스필름 프로젝트'의 역할과 기능, 그리고 이들의 협업으로 인한 기대효과를 분석하며 국내 무용영화의 발전 가능성에 대해 논의했다. '댄스필름 프로젝트'는 댄스필름 제작의 교육과 실험의 장으로, '서울무용영화제'는 무용영화 제작자 발굴, 작품 상영, 관객과의 대화, 국제교류, 유통 등의 플랫폼이 된다. 무용영화제는 무용영화의 과거와 현재의 흐름을 인식하고 미래를 전망해 볼 수 있는 살아있는 컨텐츠로서의 가치를 내재하고 있다. 이 두 단체의 상생과 발전은 국내 무용영화 발전에 긍정적인 역할을 다 할 것이라 기대된다. Dance films, which started together as a combination of dance and video technology, have evolved into a new genre. Overseas, from early 1950s, experimental dance films have been produced and the dance film association is organized along with many dance film festivals are being held. However, it has not been long since the perception and creativity of the genre of dance films in Korea. Under these circumstances, holding of the 'Seoul Dance Film Festival' and experimental approaches by 'Dance Film Project' are important for the development of domestic dance films. Therefore, this paper explores the concept and development of dance films, the status and features of various overseas dance film festivals and the 'Seoul Dance Film Festival'. This paper also explores the roll and function of 'Seoul Dance Film Festival' and 'Dance Film Project', and their expected benefit along with possibilities of prosperity of domestic dance film. 'Dance Film Project' is the educational and experimental venue for producing of dance films, and the 'Seoul Dance Film Festival' is a platform for producing dance film makers, show of works, dialogue with audiences, international exchanges, and distributions. The dance film festival embodies the value of the past and current flow of the dance film and is intrinsic to the existence of a live content that can be predicted the future aspect of its roll. The two groups mutual growth and development are expected to play a positive role in the development of domestic dance films.
본고는 다층화 연금개혁이 가지고 있는 신자유주의적 특성 중 거버넌스 구조의 변화에 주목하여 우리나라 연금개혁의 성격과 그 결과로 초래될 수 있는 문제점에 대해 논증하는 것을 목적으로 한다. 연금개혁의 내용은 축소된 공적연금과 낮은 보장성의 기초노령연금, 그리고 미발달된 사적연금 등 미완의 다층체계를 구성하는 것으로 일단락되었다. 거버넌스 구조의 분리와 노후 소득보장 수단의 개별화를 지향함으로써, 공적연금의 고유한 목적과 기능을 축소시키는 방향으로 전개된 것이다. 공적연금의 성숙도나 국가복지의 기반이 취약한 우리나라에서 다층화된 연금체계가 야기하는 문제점은 국민들의 노후를 더욱 기대할 수 없는 수준으로 만들었다는 점이다. 기초노령연금의 적용대상과 급여수준을 개선하고 보편주의적 기초연금으로 전환하여 공적연금에 관한 국가의 역할을 확대해야 할 것이며, 사적연금층을 튼실하게 구축하기 위한 사회구조의 수용가능성을 모색하는 작업이 요구된다. The main purpose of this study is to demonstrate the problems caused by the nature and its result of current pension reform in Korea. The pension reform purses to separate the governance structure and individualize the income protection mechanism. Therefore, neoliberal pension reform aiming at multi-pillar system brings about a result of weakening the role of the state in public pension system and strengthening the individual responsibility in their old-age income security. The government is expected to expand the coverage and benefit level of Basic Old-Age Pension towards a universal basic pension, and increases the structural acceptability to construct the foundation of solid private pension market.
This research was aimed at finding clues of improving residential quality of the Urbanistic Housing which was introduced for the small household of 1-2 residents. It was the laws on communal amenity in multi-family housing that this research concentrated on. Looking into the multi-family housing standards for small household of Korea, Japan and UK, Japanese One-room housing Ordinance of Tokyo-do laid stress on avoiding conflict among residents and getting people mixed together. And UK's concentrated on every individual rooms inside HMO and suggested certain level of qualified life through the careful standards. On the other hand, Korea's just suggested minimum housing with unit households and nearly no amenity except for parking lots. There should be more than a physical space with some area which satisfies basic physiological needs in a residence. To become a quality residence filled with relationship, it is necessary that Urbanistic Housing are also required to provide communal amenities, not as much as regular housing for regular household but much more than Quasi-housing, the minimum residence. And it should be ensured by the legal system to make it more effective.
Purpose: This research aimed at finding meaningful environmental design properties among passive design of vernacular architecture in hot-climate region from the viewpoint of contemporary architectural design methode. Method: First, to set a new analysis framework over the environmental passive design properties of vernacular architecture, reviews on all detailed evaluation items of green building certification systems of four countries were made and they were structured into a three-tier hierarchical conceptual system. Then, with this framework, it was reviewed that real vernacular architectures of two different hot regions; caves residence at Göreme of Turkey as hot-arid region, Malay house at Kudus of Indonesia as hot-humid region. Result: First, proper use of physical properties of the "soil" that exists everywhere can have a great effect on enhancing energy efficiency of buildings. Second, the natural ventilation design should be treated as more important part of the building design . Furthermore, this analysis system can be used as a more general tool to reveal the environmental property of all buildings, not limited to vernacular architecture. An attitude to supplement the unsatisfactory part of vernacular architecture with current technology is the most prior element towards local, environmental and sustainable architecture.