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In this study, occurrence status of nonpoint pollutants and characteristics of discharge by each nonpoint pollutants were examined through monitoring on nonpoint pollutants caused when raining in vineyard belonging to the agricultural area of various land use patterns. Also, the first flush analysis limited to studies on the existing non-percolation area was applied to percolation area to ascertain availability and criteria of study. Various water quality and sluice of nonpoint pollutants were analyzed, based on which discharge of nonpoint pollutants in agricultural area was ascertained to be influenced greatly by artificial factors such as period, cultivation, management, etc. Meanwhile, the first flush phenomenon at agricultural area was ascertained to occur, and the first flush was quantified through calculation of the first flush ratio. If MFF30 is based, discharge load by each nonpoint pollutants caused when raining was investigated to include 40.8% on the basis of total discharge. In case of SS in pollutants showed the highest first flush phenomenon of 64.8%. Through such a result, calculation possibility of the initial rain criteria was ascertained, and it was determined that reliability-assured criteria were calculated through further monitoring.
This study analyzed the characteristics of stormwater runoff by rainfall type in orchard areas and transportation areas for 2 years (2010~2011year). Effluents were monitored to calculate the Event Mean Concentrations (EMCs) and runoff loads of each pollutant. The pollutant EMCs by volume of stormwater runoff showed the ranges of BOD 0.9~13.6 ㎎/L, COD 13.7~45.2 ㎎/L, SS 4.1~236.4 ㎎/L, T-N 2.123~21.111 ㎎/L, T-P 0.495~2.214 ㎎/L in the orchard areas, and was calculated as BOD 2.3~22.5㎎ /L, COD 4.4~91.1 ㎎/L, SS 4.3~138.3 ㎎/L, T-N 0.700~13.500 ㎎/L, T-P 0.082~1.345 ㎎/L in the transportation areas. The correlation coefficient of determination in the orchard area was investigated in the order of Total Rainfall (0.81) > Total Runoff (0.76) > Rainfall Intensity (0.56) > Rainfall Duration (0.46) > Antecedent Dry Days (0.27). Also, in the case of the transportation area was investigated in the order of Total Rainfall (0.55) > Total Runoff (0.54) > Rainfall Intensity (0.53) > Rainfall Duration (0.24) > Antecedent Dry Days (0.14). As the result, comparing valuables relating to runoff of non-pollutant source between orchard areas and transportation areas, orchard area(R2 ≥ 0.5: X3, X4, X5) was investigated to have more influence of diverse independent valuables compared to the transportation area(R2 ≥ 0.5: X3, X4) and the difference of discharge influence factor by the land characteristics appeared apparently.
In this study, regression equation was analyzed to estimate non-point sources (NPS) pollutant loads in orchard area. Many Factors affecting the runoff of NPS pollutant as precipitation, storm duration time, antecedent dry weather period, total runoff density, average storm intensity and average runoff intensity were used as independent variables, NPS pollutant was used as a dependent variable to estimate multiple regression equation. Based on the real measurement data from 2008 to 2012, we performed correlation analysis among the environmental variables related to the rainfall NPS pollutant runoff. Significance test was confirmed that T-P (R2=0.89) and BOD (R2=0.79) showed the highest similarity with the estimated regression equations according to the NPS pollutant followed by SS and T-N with good similarity (R2>0.5). In the case of regression equation to estimate the NPS pollutant loads, regression equations of multiplied independent variables by exponential function and the logarithmic function model represented optimum with the experimented value.
Loading of NPS pollutant was valued through simulation by using BASINS/HSPF model which can simulate runoff volume in rainfall by time. For the verification of the model, it was analyzed the scatter diagram of the simulation value and measure value of water quality and runoff volume in Dongcheon estuary. Using the built model, a study on the time-variant characteristics of runoff and water quality was simulated by being classified into four cases. The result showed the simulation value was nearly same as that of the measured runoff, In the result of fit level test for measured value and simulated value, correlation of runoff volume was computed high by average 0.86 and in the water quality items, fit level of simulation and measurements was high by BOD 0.82, T-N 0.85 and T-P 0.79.
In this study, Calculated the nonpoint sources(NPS) load per unit area about various rainy events in vineyard of Nakdong River basin. NPS monitoring and calculation for NPS load per unit area were estimated from ‘Investigation method of precipitation discharge(National Institute of Environmental Research, 2007)’. The evaluation of applicability for NPS load per unit by compared with prior research data and Total Maximum Daily Load(TMDL) data. Five target areas were each 2000㎡ , 1800㎡ , 1943㎡ , 2484㎡ , 864㎡ and located in Gyeongsangbukdo Gyeongju, Gyeongsangbukdo Sangju, Gyeongsangnamdo Hapcheon in Korea. Since fruits were the only crop on the target area, the characteristics of stormwater discharge at survey sites could be evaluated independently. A total of 115 rainfall events in the Orchard area during five years(2008- 2012) was surveyed, and 38 of them became stormwater discharge. In the Nakdong River watershed, average of event mean concentrations(EMCs) in Orchard area for biochemical oxyzen demand(BOD), Chemical oxyzen demand(COD), total nitrogen(T-N), total phosphorus(T-P) were 2.0㎎/L, 10.1㎎/L, 3.195 ㎎/L, 0.578㎎/L, respectively. NPS load per unit area in Orchard area showed BOD : 2.0㎏/㎢·day, COD : 10.2㎏/㎢·day, T-N : 3.220㎏/㎢·day, T-P : 0.606㎏/㎢·day.
The first flush phenomenon and the Mass First Flush (MFFn) were analyzed for various rainy events in trunk road. Applicability for estimate MFFn using SWMM was evaluated by comparision with observed MFFn. First flush phenomenon was investigated by normalized cumulated (NCL) curve of every pollutant based on ten times of rainfall events monitoring data from 2008 to 2009. As a result, magnitude of first flush phenomenon varied with the pollutants and rainfall events. First flush phenomenon was detected highly in the trunk road. MFFn was estimated by varying n-value from 10 to 90% on the rainfall events. The n-value increases, MFFn is closed to ``1``. As time passed, the rainfall runoff was getting similar to ratio of pollutants accumulation. The result of a measure of the strength of the linear relationship between observed data and expected data under model was good (R2=0.956). As the final outcome, we have good reliability, estimation and application of MFFn using model seem statistically possible.
The MFFn(Mass First Flush) was analyzed for various rainy events(monitoring data from 2008 to 2009) in Transportation area(Highway, National road, Trunk road). Estimated MFFn using SWMM was evaluated by comparison with observed MFFn. MFFn was estimated by varying n-value from 10% to 90% on the rainy events. The n-value increases, MFFn is closed to ``1``. As time passed, the rainfall runoff was getting similar to ratio of pollutants accumulation. The result of a measure of the strength of the linear relationship between observed data and expected data under model was good (R2=0.89). Pollutants runoff loads by volume showed Highway 26.6%, National road 44.8%, Trunk road 35.0% at the MFF20(20% by total runoff). A case of MFF30, pollutants runoff loads by volume showed Highway 40.2%, National road 54.3%, Trunk road 46.8%. According to the results, Initial precipitation basis were Highway MFF30, National road MFF20, Trunk road MFF30 when the Non-Point source control facilities set up.