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Labor is an essential factor of production. Like many other emerging markets, Korean economy has been developed with heavy reliance on labor over the past few decades, and therefore efficient investment in labor has been of primary interest to Korean companies. We investigate whether and to what extent the labor investment efficiency contributes to firm value in Korea. Following prior studies, we construct an empirical proxy for labor investment efficiency - abnormal changes in the number of employees which deviates from the fitted value based on firm fundamentals. We then find that more deviation from the optimal labor investment is related to lower future operating performance and higher external financing costs (i.e., required rates of returns). We further document that long-term stock performance decreases as the deviation from the optimal labor investment increases. Our results remain unchanged with a battery of robustness checks such as controlling for capital investment efficiency, addressing endogeneity concerns, or using alternative measures of labor investment efficiency. In sum, our results collectively indicate that investment efficiency in human resources indeed significant contributes to firm value.
A 47-year-old man underwent the surgery of intertransverse discectomy through paramedian muscle splitting due to extraforaminal type of far lateral disc herniation at 4th-5th interspace of lumbar vertebrae. The authors encountered the terminal branch of the segmental artery that traversed the extruded disc around the dorsal root ganglion during the sugery. We coagulated the artery by a bipolar coagulator and cut the artery for the discectomy. There was no active bleeding during the surgery. However, the patient suffered from abdominal, right leg and flank pain at the first postoperative day. The follow-up magnetic resonance imaging revealed a retroperitoneal hematoma at the operation site. The patient underwent removal of the retroperitoneal hematoma. We identified the cause of bleeding as the rupture of coagulated terminal branch of the segmental artery around the dorsal root ganglion. The retroperitoneal hematoma was evacuated completely. The ruptured artery was clipped by a small metal clip, and his symptoms subsequently were resolved.
The purpose of this study is to see how urban spatial structure in Suwon city has been transformed with time and to find out what factors have influenced the transformation process. Research data was collected through analyzing aerial pictures of the city, the city plans, and other materials related to the city development plans, all of which were created between the 1940s and the 1990s. In order to see how the city structure has been changed with time, this study has analyzed various infrastructures of the city such as Hwaseong Fortress constructed during King Jeongjo period 200 years ago and other contemporary spatial structures existing in the city. The research findings show that the city has been expanded through construction of railroads and highways and that spatial structure of the city has been transformed through development paradigm such as housing and other industrialization policies. The findings of this study indicate that urban spatial structure plan should be devised centering not on mere expansion policies but on the possibility of the cities multidimensional, balanced, and sustainable development.
According to the recent conveniences in the migration of capital and population, competitions among cities are being intensified. For the goals of introducing investments, securing new residents, and the improvement of city image, cities are focusing their interests on the City Marketing, especially, on the development of the City Brand, which is widely adopted as the means of advertising city's commercial value presented in its image. This study is focused on the Brand Image which is known to be a strong influencing factor as well as a constructing element. Details cover the analysis of the elements and their characteristics and influences, for the purpose of presenting information useful for processing the strategy of future city brand. As the result, traffic facilities, natural environments, functions and phase of city, historical characteristics were deduced as major elements of the city brand images. It was also shown that the city brand images have influence on the overall favorable impression and characteristics, atmosphere, and sightseeing business of the city.