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In order to have a superconductive connection between the wire-wound pickup coil and input coil, typically Nb terminal blocks with screw holes are used. Since this connection structure occupies large volume, large stray pickup area can be generated which can pickup external noise fields. Thus, SQUID and connection block are shielded inside a superconducting tube, and this SQUID module is located at some distance from the distal coil of the gradiometer to minimize the distortion or imbalance of uniform background field due to the superconducting module. To operate this conventional SQUID module, we need a higher liquid He level, resulting in shorter refill interval. To make the fabrication of gradiometers simpler and refill interval longer, we developed a novel method of connecting the pickup coil into the input coil. Gradiometer coil wound of 0.125-mm diameter NbTi wires were glued close to the input coil pads of SQUID. The superconductive connection was made using an ultrasonic bonding of annealed 0.025-mm diameter Nb wires, bonded directly on the surface of NbTi wires where insulation layer was stripped out. The reliability of the superconductive bonding was good enough to sustain several thermal cycling. The stray pickup area due to this connection structure is about $0.1\;mm^2$, much smaller than the typical stray pickup area using the conventional screw block method. By using this compact connection structure, the position of the SQUID sensor is only about 20-30 mm from the distal coil of the gradiometer. Based on this compact module, we fabricated a magnetocardiography system having 61 first-order axial gradiometers, and measured MCG signals. The gradiometers have a coil diameter of 20 mm, and the baseline is 70 mm. The 61 axial gradiometer bobbins were distributed in a hexagonal lattice structure with a sensor interval of 26 mm, measuring $dB_z/dz$ component of magnetocardiography signals.
Electric activity of cardiac muscles generates magnetic fields. Magnetocardiography (or MCG) technology, measuring these magnetic signals, can provide useful information for the diagnosis of heart diseases. It is already about 40 years ago that the first measurement of MCG signals was done by D. Cohen using SQUID (superconducting quantum interference device) sensor inside a magnetically shielded room. In the early period of MCG history, bulky point-contact RF-SQUID was used as the magnetic sensor. Thanks to the development of Nb-based Josephson junction technology in mid 1980s and new design of tightly-coupled DC-SQUID, low-noise SQUID sensors could be developed in late 1980s. In around 1990, several groups developed multi-channel MCG systems and started clinical study. However, it is quite recent years that the true usefulness of MCG was verified in clinical practice, for example, in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease. For the practical MCG system, technical elements of MCG system should be optimized in terms of performance, fabrication cost and operation cost. In this review, development history, technical issue, and future development direction of MCG technology are described.
Measurement of magnetic signals generated from electric activity of myocardium provides useful information for the functional diagnosis of heart diseases. Key technical component of the magnetocardiography (MCG) technology is SQUID. To measure MCG signals with high signal-to-noise ratio, sensitive SQUID magnetic field sensors are needed. Present magnetic field sensors based on Nb SQUIDs have field sensitivity good enough to measure most of MCG signals. However, for accurate measurement of fine signal pattern or detection of local atrial fibrillation signals, we may need higher field sensitivity. In addition to field sensitivity, economic aspect of the SQUID system is also important. To simplify the SQUID readout electronics, the output voltage or flux-to-voltage transfer of SQUID should be large enough so that direct measurement of SQUID output can be done using room-temperature preamplifiers. Double relaxation oscillation SQUID (DROS), having about 10 times larger flux-to-voltage transfers than those of DC-SQUIDs, was shown to be a good choice to make the electronics compact. For effective cancellation of external noise inside a thin economic shielded room, first-order axial gradiometer with high balance, simple structure and long-baseline is needed. We developed a technology to make the axial gradiometer compact using direct bonding of superconductive wires between pickup coil and input coil. Conventional insert has mechanical support to hold the gradiometer array, and the dewar neck has equal diameter with the dewar bottom. Boiling of the liquid He can generate mechanical vibrations in the gradiometer array due to mechanical connection structure. Elimination of the mechanical support, and direct mounting of the gradiometer array into the dewar bottom can reduce the dewar neck diameter, resulting in the reduction of liquid He consumption.
액체급냉법으로 제작한 단일박대형 Fe_(73.5)Cu₁Nb₃Si_(16)B_(6.5) 합금의 투자율 여효에 대한 열처리 효과를 펄스측정법으로 조사하였다. 미열처리 시료의 자화율 X와 인가자기장이 10 Oe 때의 자속밀도 B_(10)은 약 800과 0.8 T 였으며, 교류소자후 1초에서 64초 사이의 X의 변화율 D는 약 16%였다. 300℃에서 600℃ 사이의 1시간의 등온 열처리에 의하여 연 자기특성은 향상하였으며 최적 열처리온도 570℃에서 X, B_(10), D는 각각 15000, 1.2 T, 1.1 % 이였다. 열처리에 의한 특성의 변화의 원인을 미세결정립의 크기와 자기변형등에 연관하여 고찰하였다. Annealing effects on the permeability aftereffect (disaccommodation) of liquid quenched single strip Fe_(73.5)Cu₁Nb₃Si_(16)B_(6.5) alloys were investigated with pulse method. The initial susceptibility X. B_(10) (the flux density at 10 Oe) and disaccommodation intensity D (D = [X(1s)-X(64s)]/X(1s). where X(1s) and X(64s) are the susceptibility of 1 and 64 s of rest time after A. C. demagnetization) were about 800, 0.8 T and 16 %, respectively. The soft magnetic properties were improved with isothermal annealing for 1 hour at 300~600 ℃. X. B_(10) and D at 570℃ of optimum annealing temperature were 15000. 1.2 T and 1.1 %. respectively. The origin of the change of characteristics were examined with fine crystalline structure and magnetostriction.