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ObjectiveThe laboratory biomarkers used to diagnose spinal infection include white blood cell (WBC) counts, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and C-reactive protein (CRP). Recently, procalcitonin (PCT) has been used as a biomarker to distinguish between bacterial infection and non-bacterial infection. We aimed to compare the changes of conventional biomarker and PCT in patients with spinal infection before and after antibiotic treatment. MethodsESR, CRP, WBC counts, and PCT were measured in 29 patients diagnosed with pyogenic spinal infection at our hospital between May 2016 and December 2018 prior to antibiotic administration. After antibiotic administration, the values were followed up for 4 weeks at 1-week intervals. ResultsA total of 29 patients were enrolled, with a mean age of 67.8 years, consisting of 16 men and 13 women. Twenty-five patients had lumbar infections, and 2 each had cervical and thoracic infections. The mean ESR, CRP, PCT, and WBCs decreased at week 4 of antibiotic treatment compared to their baseline values. CRP and WBCs were significantly decreased after 4 weeks of treatment compared to before treatment. The mean ESR and PCT was not statistically significant compared to pretreatment and after antibiotic treatment (p-value>0.05). ConclusionAmong several biomarker, CRP and WBCs are biomarkers that can aid early evaluation of the effects of antibiotic treatment in pyogenic spondylitis. Although PCT did not have statistical significance, it can be used as a biomarker that reflects the effect of antibiotic and severity of infection.
Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism are the main ideas of ancient Chinese society. They have a great influence on ancient Chinese intellectuals. There have been many famous literary works that are compatible with Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism. Chinese drama has a long history and rich content. It can be divided into ornamental drama and ceremonial drama. The performance venue of ceremonial drama is located in the countryside. The participating groups are all farmers and are true vulgar literature. Taking an ancient folk ritual drama from the south of Shanxi province as the object of investigation, this paper has collected and collated 50 kinds of precious folk scripts, the oldest of which is 235 years old. Analyzing the Confucian, Buddhist and Taoist thoughts in the script, we can find that these thoughts are more clearly presented in the subject matter, plot setting, drama language and character setting. Confucianism is mainly manifested in Script lines and characters. The script has shaped the image of many wise kings, loyal ministers, faithful wife,and filial sons. A large number of Taoist terms and characters are used in the plays. In terms of characters and plots, Taoist thoughts are also vividly reflected. Buddhist thoughts are more reflected in karma and reincarnation in the folk script. They show that the general public uses religion to comfort the soul, try to endure the suffering of the world, and do more good deeds in exchange for happiness in the afterlife. By comparing with ornamental drama, we can find that the Taoist drama works created by intellectuals emphasize different ideological tendencies of preaching, seclusion, and expressing life as a dream. The Taoist thoughts in the folk script are more peculiar to fairy spells, and the Taoist characters have extensive divination and good fortune, forecasting the future. It shows the tendency of the people to pay more attention to practicality. Whether it is the literary creation of The Exhortation of Goodness or the folk script The White Pelican Open Road, it shows the tendency of Confucianism, Buddhism, and Taoism to coexist, infiltrate, and merge with each other. It proves that the basic ideological pattern of the ancient Chinese society is dominated by Confucianism, supplemented by Buddhism and Taoism, and the unity of the three religions.
Jin Yong, formerly known as Zha Liangyong, is a famous martial arts novelist in China. He has written 15 famous martial arts novels in his life that enjoy universal praise, which can be called classic martial arts novels. Guo Jing and Yang Guo are the protagonists of Jin Yong’s “Legends of the Condor Heroes” and “The Return of the Condor Heroes” respectively. They are two of the most soul-stirring heroic martial arts figures in Jin Yong's works. The brilliance of personality in these two characters is pre- cisely the quality of "benevolence" advocated by Confucianism, that is, the ideal personality advocated by Confucius. By analyzing the images of Guo Jing and Yang Yue, this paper, on the one hand, shows the Confucian ideal personality realized by Jin Yong, that is, Confucius' so-called “benevolence” is not just a personal moral accomplishment, what is more important is to be able to shoulder the mission of the times and to build the historical achievements required by the times; this paper also points out that Jin Yong's understanding of traditional culture accords with the readers' philosophical cognition and thinking paradigm, which is the im- portant reason why Jin Yong's novels can be widely accepted by readers. And further analyzing the way of cultivating the Ideal Personality of Confucianism through Yang Guo's image -- The Idea of building peo- ple to be gentlemen. In other words, the growth of Yang Guo is another practical way to shape the ideal personality of Confucianism.
In the legends of Tang Dynasty, the chivalrous novels that express the image of knights and chivalrous spirit represent the formal formation of Chinese martial arts novels. The most successful works of chivalrous novels in the Tang Dynasty are “Biography of the Qiu Ranke” and “Nie Yinniang”. This article compares and analyzes the two female chivalrous image of Hong Fu Nu and Nie Yin Niang, and examines their similarities and differences in the four aspects of identity background, marriage and love, characteristic advantages, and chivalrous spirit. Through analysis, we can find that: First of all, there is a huge difference in the identity backgrounds of Hong Fu Nu and Nie Yin Niang. However, no matter what the origin of the knight, the most attractive is the Chivalrous courage and spirit. Second, both Hong Fu Nu and Nie Yin Niang broke through barriers and constraints, bravely pursued marriage independence. However, “Biography of the Qiu Ranke” is more advanced than “Nie Yinniang”. Hong Fu Nu and Li Jing is a model of ideal love in people's minds. “Nie Yinniang” lacks emotional description. Nie Yin Niang chose her husband because of the mirror is very helpful. Third, Hong Fu Nu and Nie Yin Niang have their own advantages and specialties. This is Hong Fu Nu's beauty and Nie Yin Niang's superb martial arts. and the two items have also become the basic elements in shaping the female chivalrous image in later martial arts novels. Finally, the types of knights include not only Confucian knights who serve the country and make contributions, but also Taoist knights who don't care about fame and fortune and go back to seclusion. Hong Fu Nu and Nie Yin Niang are typical representatives of these two knights.
In this study 21 cases of the lung cancer were experienced at the department of thoracic surgery, Chungnam National University Hospital during the period from June, 1976, till May, 1978. 1. Analys's on the age incidence of the 21 cases showed that 90.5% (19 cases) were over 40 years of age. 2. The frequent chief complaints were as follows, cough and squtum in 66. 7%, dyspnea in 47. 6%, mass on the neck and chest wall in 19%, and chest pain in 19%, respectively. 3. Histopathological diagnos's was passable in 21 of the 20 cases and 48% of the histologically diagnosed cases were found to be squamous cell carcinoma. 4. Pulnonary resection was performed in 3 cases. Among the inoperable cases, metastes's to supraclavicilar lymphonodes was noticed in 11 cases.
In the year of 1364(= the king Gongmin 13th year), Goryo army encountered miserable defeat by ‘Waegu(=japanese pirates) in the naval battle of Izakdo(Izak island) which is located in western sea of Korean peninsular(=yellow sea). The reasons of the miserable defeat were as follows : 1. the discord of the channel of command 2. the quality of commander 3. the performance of naval battle of soldiers. The naval battle was proceeded as follows : Each soldiers start to shoot an arrow a little way off. And as the ships get closer each other, they started to speared each other. Boats tip after contact with each other, the members of Waegu armed with swords jumped onto Goryo army’s ships started to the hand – to hand combat. One reason of Goryo army’s defeat was that their performance of using swords like as arrows and spears and long swords on board ship was inferior to Waegu. The soldiers had mobilized in the Izakdo battle were land troops like as cavalry or infantry. There were big differences between the conditions of the ground combat and naval battle like as the tidal current, seasickness etc. On the other hand, Waegu members are the nautical. And the Goryo court knew that this point. So there were so many members of Goryo court who opposed to rebuild their navy because their navy could not afford the Waegu in the naval battle. Therefore Goryo court did not try to rebuild their navy.
In this paper, we describe a microfabricated cell culture system (MCCS) for the microscopic live observation of cellular behavior in a reconstituted tissue-like microenvironment. The MCCS was used as a novel tool for tracking the proliferation of undifferentiated HT-29 cells. A wall structure of gelled extracellular matrix (ECM) protein was constructed inside the MCCS to establish a tissue-like microenvironment of the intestinal tissue. The ECM wall consisting of type I collagen retained the structural integrity during the gelation process and provided the adhesion surface for the HT-29 cells. We carried out the microscopic live observation of the proliferation of HT-29 cells seeded with various concentrations. The multilayered growth of HT-29 cells in the undifferentiated state was monitored without cell fixation, which was a necessary process in a conventional in vitro cell culture. The live tracking of cell culture also recorded the contraction of cell culture morphology during the initial period of cultivation. This approach is helpful for the establishment of an in vitro model for the live observation study of intestinal epithelial differentiation in an in vivo-like microenvironment.