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This study was performed to evaluate differences of immune responses according to the injection period of recombinant mouse interferon-γ(IFN-γ) in acute murine toxoplasmosis. Each mouse was infected intraperitoneally with 100 cysts of Beverley strain of T. gondii, and injected with 5 × 10 ^4 units of IFN-γ every other day for a total of two injections. From the 1st week after infection, blastogenic responses of splenocytes to concanavalin A(Con. A, 2.5㎍/ml) and Toxoplasma antigen(30.0㎍/ml) were examined at 1 week interval for 4 weeks. Also serum IgG and IgM antibody titers were examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and immunohistochemical study of brain tissues were done at the same time. Toxoplasma antigen-treated blastogenic responses were significantly increased in the IFN-γ injected groups as compared with Toxoplasma-infected group. However Con. A-treated blastogenic responses were increased in the mice that received two doses of IFN-γ on day 4 and 2 before infection, or day 2 and 0 before infection. The serum IgG and IgM antibody titers of IFN-γ injected groups were increased from 2 weeks after infection, and IgM antibody titers were increased at 2 and 3 weeks after infection as compared with non-infected group. No significant differences were revealed between IFN-γ injected groups and Toxoplasma-infected group. T gondii was found as tachyzoites at 2 weeks after infection, and cysts found in 4 weeks. However, no T. gondii was detected in IFN-γ injected groups in the same period. The results suggested that IFN-γ administration to T. gondii-infected mice improve the cell-mediated immune responses, especially when IFN-γ was injected just before T. gondii infection. But there was not significant differences serum antibody titers and immunohistochemical findings of brain tissues according to the injection period of IFN-γ.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the differences in humoral immune response between cytoplasmic soluble antigen and membrane antigen of Toxoplasma gondii. The cytoplasmic soluble and membrane antigens were prepared from T gondii tachyzoites by means of ultrasonication and treatment of Triton X-100. Sera were collected from mice immunized with each antigen at weekly interval for 10 weeks. The serum antibodies were detected by ELISA, and the antidody-binding proteins were analyzed by Western blot. The serum IgM titers were increased in mice immunized with cytoplasmic soluble antigen from 3 weeks, and the titers were peaked between 6 and 8 weeks. However the IgM antibody titers from mice immunized with the membrane antigen were not significantly increased in comparison with negative control group. The serum IgG titers were not revealed significant differences bewteen groups of antigens. Sera from mice immunized with cytoplasmic soluble antigen and membrane antigens reacted with specific bands of T.gondii from 2 and 3 weeks after immunization, respectively. During the course of immunization additional bands appeared consecutively, and antibody-binding antigens were reacted mainly with the molecular weight from 22-kDa to 68-kDa after 5 weeks. In conclusion, there were not distinguished specific humoral immune responses between cytoplasmic soluble antigen and membrane antigen of T.gondii, except serum IgM antibody responses.
Purpose: Surface antigen 3 (SAG3) of Toxoplasma gondii is very similar in structure to the major surface antigen 1 (SAG1). Although numerous studies have supported the importance of SAG1 in protection against T. gondii infection, few reports exist on SAG3. Materials and Methods: Glutathione-S-transferase (GST)-fused SAG3 of T. gondii (rSAG3) were immunized into BALB/c mice alone or in combination with Quil A (rSAG3/Quil A), and then evaluated the protective immunity in vivo and in vitro against murine toxoplasmosis. Results: Immunization with rSAG3 or rSAG3/Quil A resulted in significantly more survival days and fewer brain cysts after challenge with T. gondii compared to an infected control group. Mice immunized with rSAG3 alone or in combination with Quil A produced significantly more specific IgG2a antibody, whereas specific IgG1 antibody titers did not increase. The percentage of CD8+ T cells, IFN-γ mRNA expression, and nitric oxide production significantly increased in rSAG3- and rSAG3/Quil A-immunized mice. Conclusion: These results indicate that vaccination with Toxoplasma rSAG3 results in partial protective immunity against T. gondii infection through induction of a Th1-type immune response, and that protective immunity is accelerated by the modulating effects of Quil A.
Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate), poly(3HB-co-3HV), copolyesters, with 3-hydroxyvalerate (3HV) contents ranging from 17 to 60 mol%, were produced by Alcaligenes sp. MT-16, and their biocompatibility evaluated by the growth of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and the adsorp-tion of blood proteins and platelets onto their film surfaces. The number of CHO cells that adhered to and grew on these films was higher with increasing 3HV content. In contrast, the tendency for blood proteins and platelets to adhere to the copolyester surfaces significantly decreased with increasing 3HV content. Examination of the surface morphology using atomic force microscopy revealed that the surface rough-ness was an important factor in determining the biocompatibility of theses copolyesters. The results ob-tained in this study suggest that poly(3HB-co-3HV) copolyesters, with >30 mol% 3HV, may be useful in biocompatible biomedical applications.
Postoperative intussusceptions is a distinct complication, occurring peculiarly in the infant and young children after major abdominal surgical procedures. It is difficult to make an accurate preoperative diagnosis. The cause of the postoperative intussusceptions maybe related to the disorga?nized peristaltic activity which accompanies with the return of the intestinal function, after any laparotomy. Such intussusceptions: is usually confined to the mid small intestine, rarely associate with the rectal bleeding or a palpable abdominal mass. In most cases, the postoperative intussusceptions is easily reduced without need for resection. Recently we have experienced 3 cases of postoperative intussusceptions of small intestine in the adult after stomach operation. Treatments were manual reductions without need for resection in all cases. Postoperative courses were unremarkable without: any complication.