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This study empirically investigated the influence of inter-organizational relationships on the inter-organizational trust, inter-organizational cooperation and inter-organizational cost management. Through reorganization of long-term orientation and empirical research, we investigate the causes of difference between the claims of previous studies and the results of domestic enterprises. Along with this, we empirically validated the indirect effect through inter-organizational trust. According to the results, we judged that high-level long-term orientation groups improve the level of inter-organizational cost management through the maintaining long-lasting relationship and low-level long-term orientation groups are able to facilitate the level of inter-organizational cost management by gaining the trust level between the organizations. The results of analyses showed that low-level long-term orientation groups have an effect either directly or indirectly inter-organizational cost management level as well as inter-organizational cooperation level. Finally, we proved that through inter-organizational trust, long-term orientation indirectly influence on inter-organizational cooperation level and inter-organizational trust level is the first significance prerequisite to introduce inter-organizational cooperation. 본 연구는 조직간 관계유형별 수준차이가 조직간 신뢰, 조직간 협력 및 조직간 원가관리 도입간의 관련성에 미치는 영향을 실증적으로 규명하는 데 목적이 있다. 이를 위해 최근 국내기업을 대상으로 이루어진 연구를 바탕으로 조직간 원가관리 도입에 직․간접적인 영향을 미치지 못한 것으로 나타난 장기지향성 요인을 수준별로 재구성하고, 실증적으로 검증하여, 선행연구들의 주장과 국내기업 분석결과간의 차이가 발생하는 원인을 규명하였으며, 조직간 신뢰를 통한 간접효과를 실증적으로 검증하였다. 실증분석 결과, 조직간 장기지향성 수준이 높은 집단은 관련기업과의 지속적인 관계유지를 통하여 조직간 이해와 신뢰관계가 이미 일정 수준을 유지하고 있으므로, 이를 바탕으로 한 조직간 협력관계를 더욱 공고히 함으로써 조직간 원가관리 도입 수준을 향상시킬 수 있으며, 장기지향성 수준이 낮은 집단은 높은 집단에 비해 낮은 수준의 신뢰관계를 유지하고 있으므로 조직간 원가관리 도입 및 실행에 전제가 되는 조직간 신뢰수준을 확보함으로써 조직간 원가관리 도입수준을 촉진시킬 수 있을 것으로 판단된다. 둘째, 장기지향성 수준이 낮은 집단은 조직간 원가관리 도입수준에 직․간접적으로 영향을 미칠 뿐만 아니라 조직간 협력 수준에도 직․간접적으로 영향을 미친다. 셋째, 장기지향성은 조직간 신뢰를 통해 조직간 협력 수준에 간접적으로 영향을 미칠 뿐만 아니라 조직간 신뢰가 협력의 전제조건이라는 선행연구를 실증적으로 입증하였다.
The early concern about shoes market which the high preference phenomenon of 「SAS」 brand has brought, has taken an opportunity to come into contact with BMW'S of a relative systematic domestic brand in the process of research and collection of materials concerned to functionalization. Furthermore the basic concept of the brand and the structure, function and effect of the product have become the direct motivation in this study. As the fact known to everybody, shoes has become the valuable research field in the aspect of having a great influence to the health of the human body as well as being an element of clothing. So the concern about functionalization and the degree of utilization according to this are increased gradually in the young age class as well as middle or old age ones. Especially women's worng wearing habits bring about a kind of 'modern disease' which rouse up a serious deformity of feet. To protect feet from damage caused by shoes and to maintain a healthy life: First, the proper understanding to the function and its role of feet in human body is needed. Second, shoes should be considered in the aspect of maintaining human-body health rather than that of its fashion. Third, with prior knowledge to each characteristics and function in the various kind of functionalization, and with the wisdom of suitable and more effective shoe selection to each human, he/she would live a healthy life.
Good piano music for beginners has always been scarce. It 1st true that masters such as Johann Sebastian Bach or Robert Schumann also occasionally composed "easy" piano music. However, the absolute beginner is just as excluded from the Little Keybord Book for Anna Magdalena Bach Or the Little Preludes and Fugues as the Album for the Young - or, to remain in the present, as Igor Stravinsky's Les Cinq Doigts and Paul Hindemith's Easy Five-tone Pieces. In the course the 19th century this gap was overgrown by a proliferating musical sub-culture which for the greater part was fed by composing piano teachers of publishers. Alredy long before Mikrokosrnos, Beta Bartok also published light piano works, which nevertheless were not pieces for beginners. The collection For Children was composed 1908/09 as the first outcome of his researches into Hungarian and Slavonic folk melodies. In 1907 Bartok had become professor of piano playing at the Academy of Music in Budapest. Just how seriously he took his teaching tasks, also as a composer, can be seen from further instructional works of that period: the Ten Little Piano Pieces (1908) and the piano manual (1912/13) produced together with Sandor Reschofsky. It may seem amazing that in the years of the breakthrough of new music Bartok had no scruples about making his introduction with simple children's pieces. In the meantime he knew that he was being supported by a musical basis which was no less "new" than severance from tonality among the members of his own generation, a foundation which, however, was eminently suited to the undermanding requirements of simple piano pieces: music of the Hungarian peasants. He and Kodaly had realised that this peasants music was completely different from what one had formerly regarded as Hungarian "folk music". All his compositions of this kind are based, directly or indirectly, upon folk music. The beginnings of the Mikrokosmos go back as far as the year 1926. Probably Bartok originally had in mind pieces for his son Peter, who was born in 1924. The last piece of Volume II is expressly dedicated to him (Petere). A report by Bartok in 1940 describes how the work came to be written: "Already at that time (1926) I was thinking about writing easy piano music for elementary instruction. Actually I did not get down to the work until the summer of 1932. At that time I turned out about 40 pieces, from 1933 to 1934 again about 40. and in the following years approcimately 20, until finally in 1938 about a hundred and something pieces were ready. However, mere were still some gaps. I filled these up last year''. It can be deduced from this report that Mikrokosmos was composed between 1926 and 1939, and that the greater part of the wwk was done between 1932 and 1939. There are two aims in the collection. First, the pupil is to achieve a good and musically sompetent style without the usual unmusical "exercises", the pernicious influence of which is only too obvious later on. Second, the beginner is io so acclimatized to modern musical idiom and so well educated and be able to recognize in it the characteristics both of progressive and conservative styles. The individual pieces in Mikrokosmos are in different forms, beginning with simple eight-bar structures and leading to designs of much greate' complexity. The pupil can play the easiest pieces after a month or tho. As well as a greal variety of rhythms one finds different kinds of counterpoint, from simple pedal point to canon. Many pieces are bitonal. others ard pentatonic, others again are in the church modes. In respect of melody, pedagogic conderations are also to the fore, so that characteristics of the toneseries used are given prominence, and particular intervals emphasized. With three exceptions the 153 pieces in Mikrokosmos are based on original melodies composed by Bartok. In the Preface to the Mikrokosmos Bartok recommends the following procedures to meet individual needs; (a) the order of pieces may bealtered in accordance with the ability of the pupil, (b) many of the pieces may be blayed faster or slower than indicated, (c) teacher and pupil habe the opportunity of making a choice, since there are frequently several pieces dealing with the same problem, (d) the teacher should invent exercises for the pupil, and (e) the teacher should "present pieces in any way that seems best to the student's needs." Bartok believed that certain pieces were interesting because of their construction in terms of unusual rhythmic patterns, changes of meter or tempo, hand crossings, colorful tonality, use of the pedal, or irregularity of phrase structure. Comprehensive works with an educational purpose as valuable as Mikrokosmos are rare in the History of art. Mikrokosmos gives important advice not only to pianistsbut also to composers.
Maurice Ravel (1875-1937) is often associated with Debussy, and they have certain features in eommon, such as Impressionist harmony and French refinement. However, Ravel's music is significantly different from Debussy's in a number of ways. As Ravel points out, his direction is "opposite to that of Debussy"; and he is distinguished from Debussy by other characteristics close to the spirit of the eighteenth century, notably by more clearly defined melodies and forms and by a somewhat more traditional usage with respect to tonality and dissonance. Ravel is, in fact, as much a Classicist as an Impressionist, especially in his later works. His melodies are much clearer as melodies than are Debussy's; they are typically in form as chaste and clear as any of the classics, and are lyrical and often diatonic or modal in character, although sometimes subtly tinged with chromatic harmony. In all his music Ravel exhibits a meticulous craftsmanship and, in his piano or orchestral works, a very special talent for idiomatic and virtuoso scoring. In Jeux d'Eau (1901), the first of the virtuoso piano pieces, he anticipates the later piano style of Debussy. To many of his contemporaries, Ravel stood in the shadow of Debussy as an Impressionist. This judgment, which persists today, is unfair to Ravel's work as a whole; and it was a factor that clouded the personal relationship of the two composers. Ravel never was, and never pretended to be, an Impressionist or Symbolist like the Debussy of Pelleas and Melisande. Ravel's Jeux d'Eau, which is written for piano, resembles to classical sonata form. But its introduction and use of themes are widely different from what are discernible in classical sonata form. The use of the third theme in the middle part of the work represents a departure from the conventional progress of a musical theme and strongly suggest the originality of the composer. And the subtle linking of the first, second and third theme greatly hightens the value of the work. The work never depart entirely from the first theme at any point and it is repeated over and over. This is a triumph of logicality which makes the work a harmony in sonata form between the classic and the modern. The harmonies and sonic pattern determine more than the whole structure of the work does the basic characteristics of Jeux d'Eau. Thus the repeated use of same or slightly altered sonic patterns serves as the very basis of the characterietics of the work. And from the viewpoint of the classical forms or that of harmonic structure. Revel's Jeux d'Eau represents an advance from the world of Debussy. The piano performance of this work, Jeux d'Eau, as a means of artistic recreation, can convey the original quality of the composition as written by the composer only when and if the performer burns with the same intensity of desire for expression as that which besieged the composer. And such desire can only be developed on a basis of extensive analysis of the work itself.
통계는 정부 정책 수립의 기초가 되는 근거로 작용하며 다양한 사회현상을 객관적으로 파악하는데 있어 기저를 형성한다. 우리나라도 급변하는 사회현상을 파악하고 대응하는데 통계를 활용하고 있고, 필요 통계의 생산에 지속적인 노력과 투자를 확대하고 있다. 그럼에도 불구하고 미생산된 통계는 향후 생산 방안을 마련하여 점차 확대 생산하면 되지만, 더 중요한 것은 생산되고 있는 통계의 사용이 용이하지 않다는 점이다. 이렇듯 생산된 통계의 접근성을 높이면서 이용률을 제고할 목적으로 한국보건사회연구원에서는 보건복지 통계 및 마이크로데이터, 비정형통계, 관련 부가정보 등을 수집·데이터베이스로 구축하고 있다. 특히, 보건복지와 관련된 북한통계, 지역 통계, 국제통계, 보건복지통계뉴스, 통계용어 및 관련제도, 해외 통계자료집 등 다양한 콘텐츠를 데이터베이스화 하였다. 지속적인 데이터베이스 구축과 더불어 기 구축된 통계의 신속한 업데이트, 통계관련 메타정보의 중요성 인식 및 충실한 제공, 통계 수요자의 필요통계 지속적 파악 등을 통해 수요자 중심의 보다 정확한 통계의 수집·제공이 필요하다