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Malignant mixed Mu ¨llerian tumors (MMMT) are rare aggressive tumors that typically arise fromthe female genital tract. This malignancy has an extremely poor prognosis due to its rapid growthand the high associated incidence of both local recurrence and distant metastases. Althoughintraperitoneal metastasis from MMMT is relatively common, no reports exist regarding theradiologic findings of intestinal metastasis from MMMT. Here, we report a case of MMMT withsecondary small bowel metastasis and the associated radiologic findings.
Electronic check schemes are more efficient than electronic coin schemes with respect to computational costs and the amount of information exchanged, In spite of these, difficulties in making a refund reusable and in representing the face value of a check have discouraged its development. In this paper, a online electronic check system is presented, which solves the above problems. This system uses the partially blind signature to provide user anonymity and to represent the face value of a check. This partially blind signature is EC-KCDSA using ECC. Then this regards mobile terminals for using M-Commerce. The partially blind signature enables us to make the format of refunds and initially withdrawn checks identical and mobile. Thus, it allows refunds to be reused to buy goods without any limitations.
In the last 100 years, the interaction in music between the East and the West re-emerged as one of the major influences of growing significance in the development of modern art music, after the long absence of conscious attempt at such interaction since the Byzantine music, which blended Hellenistic and Oriental elements. Around the third century, not only many of the oldest Western chants were, in fact, composed according to the method used in Eastern melodies, but also the Byzantine system of eight echoi was an important influence on the Western musical theory of the eight ecclesiastical modes in the medieval period. Comparing the level achieved since the early 19th century to the multi-dimensional aspects of interaction in musical practice and theory between the East and the West in the previous period is not only artificial-often called Orientalism, Symbolism, Exoticism, or Neo-exoticism-but also superficial-mainly characterized as decorative or extra-musical. In Chinese, Korean, and Japanese music there are huge vocabularies of articulation, incredibly subtle ways of modifications in timbre, various inflection in pitch, wide fluctuations in intensity, etc., which are all different in emphasis and concentration in musical practice. The superficial imitation of these elements in Western music can be easily done decoratively through figurative reiteration, or juxtaposition of one element to another without any organic connection between the two, which may affect only style at the best. We may exhaust our vocabulary in discussing the stylistic differences between, let us say, Haydn and Mozart. Whether it is the style that determines the compositional technique, or the technique that influences the style is another question to be answered. However, the question of how these pieces are coherently organized should be answered before that of how they are elaborated. Misunderstanding the concept in the East of "single tones" as musical entities, especially after the development of Western compositional technique in the separation of all musical parameters(Pitch, duration, timbre, intensity, modes of articulation, etc.) in order to achieve a total organization (serialization), could delude the composer into treating decorative elements as structural ones in musical organization, instead of structuralizing decorative elements. By perceiving fundamentally elaborative elements in music as structural ones, one may have an illusion of a single-handed achievement of complete freedom, or even of revolution in the art of music. The development of interaction between the East and the West should not be exploited for the denial of any or either tradition of the art, or for the emancipation of musics from their past. Rather, it should broaden structural conceptions of both traditions, so that their ingenuity and resourcefulness open more possible new ways for the homogeneous, coherent, and logical conclusion of an idea. Illusion that the contemporary artist could create his own rule by total elimination of the past leads us into the maze where alienation of concepts can be the only protection. Musicians in the East and in the West are differently conditioned by their different traditions, trainings, and experiences. It may be true that even inspiration is conditioned by one's past convention and practice. How different or similar composers may be, even in the same hemisphere, only about 150 years apart from each other, for example, Palestrina and Bach! They may sound similar to those who are not musically trained, quite different to those who know the differences between modal and tonal organization. Yet, they may sound coherent to those who understand the history of theory as an inevitable development of underlying basic compositional concepts, and who are looking for fundamental concepts in music, its development, and its logic. How eight echoi interacted with the church modes, and how Western hymn changed since then should be answered. But more fundamentally, what was the common denominator that made their interaction possible? In the ?? Chi of the Confucianist concept of music, compiled around the first century B.C., it is said that "One must investigate sound to know tones, investigate tones to know music." In the De Institutione Harmonica Hucbald, more than ten centuries ago, stated that "Anyone who wishes to understand melodies in some way should pay strict attention to both the quality and the pitch of each tone." How incredibly analogous are the basic concepts in music that prevailed in the East and the West. In the Benedicamus Domino, one of the early musical examples of polyphony, an organum duplum of Compostela, all the relationships from the smallest details in a phrase to the larger formal structure in the organalis are structurally based on the pitch relationships in the cantus. The most fundamental manipulations for developing the basic intervallic relationships in the cantus are based on affinities of similarity in connection with identical function based on deduction and proprietas, on the common function shared by both segments presented in different locus, while keeping the identical locus with different vox. It is fascinating to realize by the elimination of embellishments, prolongations, or rhythmic displacements in mode II, how carefully the structural pitches of the discant are organized not only between cantus and organalis, but also among the different phrases. Soojecheon ("Longevity equal to heaven"), traditional Korean Court music composed about 1300 years ago, has basically four layers of sound: flutes-Sogeum and Daegeum, oboe-Piri, percussions-Janggu and Jwago, and strings-Haegeum and Ahjaeng. Each instrument plays its highly unique sophisticated version of melody with its own refined characteristics. However intriguing the mode of playing, timbre, articulation, pitch inflection, modification, and ornamentation are, the fundamental structural organization in the piece, I believe, is based upon the "pitch organization" as in the chant. While keeping the pitch-arrangement of the melody in the fourth movement, the Pyung mode: M2, m3, M2, M2, m3 in the ascending order (M : major, m: minor), is tranformed retrograde-inversinally from the pitch-arrangement of the melody in the first and the second movements, the Geh-Myung mode: m3, M2, M2, m3, M2 in the ascending order, after the mixed pitch-arrangement of the melody of the two in the third movement. Multi-cultural ethnomusicological inquiries have not been possible, largely due to the lack of availability of source materials, both music and musical theory, of the Eastern cultural to the West. Availability of Eastern music in modern transcription, along with the translation of theory, opens up the new high hope among us, especially those creative composers whose fecundity is truly associated with the tradition of music, that musically oriented meaningful, analytical investigations-beyond superficial, symbolic, decorative, or artificial levels-may illuminate formal structure other than the classical sonata-allegro form, multialyered structure beyond the polyphonic principle, theoretical formulation of multidivisional temperament, different proportions etc. Such investigations may reveal a common goal in music that will once again integrate all musical concepts and practices of the East and the West, without abandoning the uniqueness of each individual culture. Let musical concept be free from conditioned convention: style, familiarity, taste, recollection, moral motive, extra-musical philosophy, ..., above all from the East and the West. Once again, let it be wholesome with its own impulse, intention, and spontaniety, so that serious works of art shall be judged by their own virtue, independent from any other considerations, once again.
Background: Panax ginseng (i.e., ginseng) root is extensively used in traditional oriental medicine. It is amodern pharmaceutical reagent for preventing various human diseases such as cancer. Ginsenosidesdthemajor active components of ginsengdexhibit immunomodulatory effects. However, the mechanism andfunction underlying such effects are not fully elucidated, especially in human monocytes and dendriticcells (DCs). Methods: We investigated the immunomodulatory effect of ginsenosides from Panax ginseng root onCD14þ monocytes purified from human adult peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and on theirdifferentiation into DCs that affect CD4þ T cell activity. Results: After treatment with ginsenoside fractions, monocyte levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-a,interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-10 increased through phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase(ERK)1/2 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), but not p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Aftertreatment with ginsenoside fractions, TNF-a production and phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and JNKdecreased in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-sensitized monocytes.We confirmed that DCs derived from CD14þmonocytes in the presence of ginsenoside fractions (Gin-DCs) contained decreased levels of the costimulatorymolecules CD80 and CD86. The expression of these costimulatory molecules decreased inLPS-treated DCs exposed to ginsenoside fractions, compared to their expression in LPS-treated DCs in theabsence of ginsenoside fractions. Furthermore, LPS-treated Gin-DCs could not induce proliferation andinterferon gamma (IFN-g) production by CD4þ T cells with the coculture of Gin-DCs with CD4þ T cells. Conclusion: These results suggest that ginsenoside fractions from the ginseng root suppress cytokineproduction and maturation of LPS-treated DCs and downregulate CD4þ T cells.
Purpose: This study investigated the effects of reeducation of nursing process on nurses' expertise, critical thinking disposition, and clinical decision making. Methods: Data were collected from March to June, 2007. The subjects were 47 Academic Credit Bank System Student Nurses. They were taught ‘nursing process' during 1 semester(15weeks). 47 nurses were divided into three groups according to clinical experience(under 3 years, 3 to under 5 years, 5 years or more). After 15 weeks, the effects of education were compared using a paired t-test between pre-test and post-test. Results: There was a significant difference in the 3 to under 5 years experienced nurses's expertise(t=-3.659, p=.004) between the pre-test and post-test. There was a significant difference in the 5 years or more experienced nurses's expertise(t=-5.781, p<.001) and critical thinking disposition(t=-3.345, p=.003) between the pre-test and post-test. There were no significant differences in clinical decision making(accuracy, proficiency, and confidence) of 3 groups. Conclusion: Reeducation of nursing process is a valuable teaching and an evaluation strategy for 5 years or more experienced nurses to improve expertise and critical thinking disposition. We need to develop continuing education program for improving nurses' clinical decision making.
This study aimed to explore ‘desire to rebuild post-war masculinity' and ‘women's counter- strategies' in the play. By interacting with each other repeatedly, the continuity aspect and delay aspect build repeating structure of suspense and create a unique view of feminism. In the repeating structure, the violent desire of male characters to define female character (Young-Ja) becomes intense. It is foregrounded as a heavy locomotive in the play. But also Young-Ja's ambiguous reaction dodging male characters's desire gradually becomes strengthened. As Young-Ja's ambiguity disturbs male characters who demand dichotomous self-evident to her, the male ruling group cannot recklessly define her identity. 본고는 임희재의 장막극 「꽃잎을 먹고 사는 기관차」(1958)에서 나타난 ‘전후 남성성 재건의 욕망'과 ‘여성의 대항 전략'을 살피는데 목적을 두고 있다. 이는 극의 연속과 지연 양상을 파악함으로써 가능하다. 극은 ‘비밀에 싸인 여성 인물, 영자의 정체를 밝히려는' 연속적 양상과 이를 유예하는 지연의 양상으로 이뤄져 있다. 이 두 양상은 끊임없이 상호작용하여 서스펜스의 반복 구조를 만듦으로써, 여성문제에 대한 독특한 세계관을 형성한다. 서스펜스의 반복 구조 속에서, 여성 인물(영자)을 폭력적으로 규정·대상화하고자하는 남성 인물들의 욕망은 거듭 강렬해지며, ‘기관차처럼 폭주하는 것'으로서 전경화 된다. 또한 이를 지연하는 영자의 모호한 발화/행위 역시 점차 강화된다. 이 모호성은 영자의 정체에 이분법적 자명성을 요구하는 남성 인물들의 목적에서 벗어난 것이다. 따라서 모호한 발화/ 행위는 남성 지배 집단으로 하여금 그녀의 정체를 함부로 규정·전유할 수 없도록 만드는 대항 전략이 된다.
본 연구의 목적은 노인의 인지건강을 유지·증진하는 효과가 있는 것으로 밝혀진 인지건강증진 프로그램을 집단을 대상으로 적용하여 그 효과를 확인하며, 또한 소집단과 대집단으로 구분된 집단의 크기에 따른 효과의 차이를 비교하는데 있다. 연구의 대상자는 치매로 진단받지 않은 60세 이상의 노인 377명으로 인천광역시 각 구 보건소를 통해 모집하였다. 연구 결과 소집단과 대집단 모두에서 노인의 인지기능 증진과 삶의 질 향상에 유의미한 효과가 있었으며, 우울의 감소에는 그 효과가 확인되지 않았다. 개별로 적용되어 효과가 밝혀진 인지건강증진 프로그램은 다양한 크기의 집단을 대상으로 실시하여도 노인의 인지건강과 삶의 질 향상에 그 효과가 있음을 밝힘으로서, 보다 많은 노인들에게 이 프로그램을 확대 적용할 수 있는 실질적 근거를 확인할 수 있었다. The purpose of this study done by group-based application was to clarify the effect of cognitive health promotion program depending on group size. Data of 377 elderly who had a normal cognitive function was obtained through each health centers located in Incheon city. In the result, there was significant effects on cognition and quality of life, but no effect on depression. Also theres was no difference of the program's effect depending the group sizes. The result of this study would support the program of this study could be provided to more elderly by group-based application.
In this paper, we present conference key authentication mechanism by employing an algebraic method on IMT-2000 environment To accomplish this, Symmetric Balanced Incomplete block design is applied for generating the communication key and then this key is distributed to participants Through this technique for creating a conference key and mutual authentications performed based on identification information, the communication protocol is designed The protocol presented minimizes the transmission complexity for generating a conference key On a special case the time complexity is O(v√v), where v is the number of participant. The security of the mechanism, which is a significant problem in the construction of Secure system, can be, proved as computationally difficult to calculate as factoring and discrete logarithms.