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In allergic skin diseases, cutaneous adverse drug reactions, atopic dermatitis, urticaria, and allergic contact dermtitis are included. Although urticaria and allergic contact dermaitis is less common in incidence compared to atopic dermaitis, both have been considered as representative allergic skin diseases of IgE-mediated and cell-mediated immune responses, respectively. The common causes of allergic contact dermatitis and urticaria in children could be different from those in adult. If allergic contact dermaitis were suspected, patch test would be useful for not only diagnosis but also identification of causative antigen(s).
Vitiligo is an acquired depigmentary disorder of the skin that results from the loss of functioning epidermal melanocytes. Most studies on vitiligo have concentrated on the abnormality of melanocytes rather than the abnormality of keratinocytes; however, epidermal melanocytes form a functional and structural unit with neighboring keratinocytes. In fact, direct cell-to cell contact stimulates in vitro proliferation of melanocytes, and growth factors produced by adjacent keratinocytes regulate the proliferation and differentiation of melanocytes. The potential role of keratinocyte-derived cytokines has also been presented. We focused on the structural changes in vitiliginous keratinocytes,which may result in loss of melanocytes, to examine the pathomechanism of vitiligo. The results of a comparison between depigmented and normally pigmented epidermis in patients with vitiligo showed that the keratinocytes in the depigmented epidermis were more vulnerable to apoptosis. Impaired Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/serine/threonine protein kinase (Akt) activation followed by reduced nuclear factor-κB activation under increased tumor necrosis factor-α levels was demonstrated as a mechanism for keratinocyte apoptosis. The role of aquaporin 3 in keratinocyte apoptosis was addressed based on the relationship between the PI3K/AKT pathway and the E-cadherin-catenin complex. Apoptotic keratinocytes induced a lower expression of keratinocyte-derived factors, including stem cell factor, in depigmented epidermis, resulting in passive melanocyte death.
Abnormal pigmentation, particularly hyperpigmentation,is major issue of concern for people with coloredskin. Several hypopigmenting agents, which exert theiraction by inhibiting tyrosinase activity and/or transcription,have been used for treatment. However, results have beendiscouraging. To manage abnormal pigmentation properly,the mechanisms of melanogenesis should be understood. Endogenous and exogenous factors affect melanogenesis viaintracellular machineries.cAMP and PKC are critical factorsof important transduction pathways and cross-talk betweenthem could amplify the melanogenic effect. Here, factorsinvolved in melanogenesis regulation via cAMP and/or PKCpathways are reviewed with their action mechanisms.
Memory in the brain is organized into multiple memory systems that perform different memory functions and have different neurologic substrates. The medial temporal lobe and midline diencephalic structures are essential in the establishment of new declarative memories and these memory traces are finally stored in domain-specific regions of the cerebral cortex. Nondeclarative forms of memory including skill learning, priming, and classic conditioning do not involve conscious recollection and rely upon the cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, and cerebellum.
The focus of this review is the anatomy and physiology of higher cortical visual areas in macaque monkey, which are homologous to regions of the human visual cortex and numerous clinical syndromes resulting from damage to these areas. I review the functionally segregated visual information pathways involved in increasingly complex visual processing and discuss the underlying mechanisms of clinical characteristics. An understanding of these areas is important, as many of these patients will seek the attention of the neurologist, ophthalmologist, even psychiatrist, poorly defined complaints that may be difficult to specifically define
This study aimed to assess whether night shift work is associated with the risk of depression by using a meta-analysis of observational studies. We searched PubMed and EMBASE in August, 2016 to locate eligible studies and investigated the association between night shift work and the risk of depression, reporting outcome measures with adjusted odds ratios (ORs) or relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). In the meta-analysis of a total of 11 observational studies with 9 cross-sectional study, 1 longitudinal study, and 1 cohort study, night shift work was significantly associated with an increased risk of depression (OR/RR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.24–1.64; I2 = 78.0%). Also, subgroup meta-analyses by gender, night shift work duration, type of occupation, continent, and type of publication showed that night shift work was consistently associated with the increased risk of depression. The current meta-analysis suggests that night shift work is associated with the increased risk of depression. However, further large prospective cohort studies are needed to confirm this association.