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The current research investigated self-regulated motivation and the use of learning strategies in gifted and talented high school students using large-scale data from the Korea Education and Employment Panel (KEEP). First, we found that gifted and talented high school students had a greater tendency to adopt autonomously regulated motivation and employ elaboration than their public high school counterparts. Second, regardless of their academic domain of giftedness (science or foreign language), gifted and talented students adopted autonomous motivation and elaboration as a higher order thinking skill. This study expands on the current literature into the gifted and talented population. It also provides instructional implications for educators on how to motivate gifted and talented students to learn and enhance their academic success with effective learning strategies.
Background: Unenhanced computed tomography (UCT) may be useful for evaluating acute pyelonephritis; however, no study has compared UCT with enhanced computed tomography (ECT) as a diagnostic tool. We evaluated a clinical usefulness of UCT versus ECT in acute pyelonephritis (APN). Methods: We reviewed the clinical and radiological data from 183 APN-suspected patients who underwent UCT and ECT simultaneously at emergency room (ER) over a two-year period. Demographic, clinical parameters and computed tomography (CT) parameters of 149 patients were compared. Results: The average patient age was 61.2 (± 10) years: 31 patients were men. Ninety-nine (66.4%) patients showed stones (18.7%), perinephric infiltration (56%), swelling (21%), and hydronephrosis (6.7%) on UCT. Seventeen patients (11.4%) had an atypical clinical course, requiring additional tests for accurate diagnosis. In 7 patients UCT and ECT results did not differ; in 10 patients, the diagnosis changed on ECT. On ECT, 112/149 (75.2%) patients had stones (16.7%), perinephric infiltrations (57%), swelling (21%), and hydronephrosis (6.7%); 62.5% showed parenchymal involvement: 34 (22.8%) patients had no abnormal ECT findings. APN CT findings are similar on stone, perinephric infiltration, swelling and hydronephrosis on both CTs. Twelve patients (8.0%) had an abnormal ECT finding, i.e., low-grade (1 and 2) parenchymal involvement. Six (4%) patients developed contrast-induced acute kidney injury within 2 days after ECT. Conclusion: We demonstrate that UCT is not inferior to ECT as an initial tool for evaluating APN for screening nephrolithiasis and hydronephrosis without the risk of contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CIAKI). However, patients with an atypical clinical course may still need ECT.
BACKGROUND(OBJECTIVE) Association of South-East Asian Nations (ASEAN) has been emerged as the main export region of pharmaceutical products. Therefore, the cooperation with member countries of ASEAN has been emphasized and, it is necessary to understand ASEAN pharmaceutical regulatory guidelines for the growth of the pharmaceutical industry. METHODS This study investigated the regulatory guidelines adopted by ASEAN through the search of homepage, internet articles, and various regulatory information. RESULTS The main contents of ASEAN Common Technical Dossiers (ACTD) and ASEAN Common Technical Requirements (ACTR) published were presented. They were implemented by all members of ASEAN countries even though there was a slight difference in implementation timing and content. The differences as well as common features of regulatory guidelines among ASEAN member countries were presented. Detail description on regulatory agency, certificate of a pharmaceutical product (CPP), product labelling, and official product approval timelines were also described. International pharmacopoeia such as USP, BP, EP, and JP were legally recognized in ASEAN. Pharmacovigilance and risk management plans in ASEAN followed the ICH guidelines without specific requirements. The cooperation on regulatory harmonization has been continued. Especially joint assessment procedure, formal procedure including simultaneous marketing authorization application to ASEAN member countries and joint assessment reports, will be implemented in the near future. CONCLUSION Understanding and monitoring for ASEAN regulatory guideline will help make the export of domestic pharmaceutical products to the ASEAN region faster and more efficient.
According to recent research, Korean women are very interested in calf reduction. Asian women want to have slim and straight legs more than Occidental women. Thick calves are divided by three types. One is muscular hypertrophy type and another is lipodystrophy type, and the other is mixed type. The authors focused on medial gastrocnemius muscle hypertrophy using radiofrequency generator. From July 2004 to July 2007, We did calf reductions for women who wanted to have aesthetically slim legs. Under intravenous anesthesia, we made a tiny pin hole with 18 gauze needle and injected local anesthetics. Radiofrequency probe(Dr. Oppel radiofrequency, Sometech Medical Co.) was inserted and then We produced radiofrequency energy with a foot switch and made mean 150-200 points focal coagulation necrosis at each medial gastrocnemius muscle. There were little major complications such as seroma, hematoma, infection, gait disturbance, scar, sensory change etc. Some patients had moderate swelling during first week, but it was improved soon. Calf reduction using radiofrequency energy is very useful tool for hypertrophied medial gastrocnemius muscle. But we need more study for standardization of energy power, for certain amount of muscle damage to have reproducibility for predictability of durability and for possibility of rebound hypertrophy.
C-terminal farnesyl cysteine carboxyl methylation has been known to be the last step in the post-translational modification processes of several important signal transduction proteins in eukaryotes, mainly G-protein superfamily including ras related GTP binding proteins and the γ-subunit of heterotrimeric G proteins. Thus, regulatory role of protein farnesyl cysteine carboxyl methyltransferase (PFC- CMT; EC, 188.8.131.52) catalyzing the reaction is suggested for various physiologic activities of G proteins. And the enzyme was well characterized to be stimulated by guanosine 5'-O- (3-thiotriphosphatei (GTPγS) and suppressed by N-acetyl-S-farnesyl-L-cysteine (AFC). As an initial step to understand the physiological significance of the process, we attempted to purify the enzyme. The enzyme was partially purified 130-fold (specific activity, 143 pmol of methyl group transferred/ min/㎎ of protein) with an yield of 1.8% after the purification by fast protein liquid chromatography(FPLC) on Superdex 75 column, and further purified with non denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (ND-PAGE) and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-RAGE). The molecular weight of PFC- CMT was determined to be about 30 kDa based on Superdex 75 FPLC as well as photoaffinity labelling with S-adenosyl-L-〔methyl-³H 〕 methionine(〔methyl-³H 〕SAM). The partially purified enzyme(Superdex 75 eluate) was found to he characteristically stimulated by GTPγS. being about 40-fold increase of the activity in the presence of 2mM, in contrast to ATP which did not have any effect on the enzyme activity. Meanwhile, the enzyme was found to be markedly inhibited by AFC, reaching 0 activity- in 2mM, which strongly suggested that the partially purified enzyme was PFCCMT. 30 kDa protein extracted from SDS-PAGE was subjected to amino acid analysis and protein internal microsequencing by in gel digestion. The protein is composed of 266 amino acids, with leucine(l4 mole %) and alanine(l3 mole %) as major amino acids. Elution pattern of tryptic digests of the protein run on a capillary HPLC/ion trap mass spectrometer(LCQ) system showed no match in OWL database using the SeQuest program. Partial amino acid sequence of the protein, Leu-Gln-Leu-Arg and His-Pro-Val-Gly-Val-Glu-Tyr- Ala-Thr-Lys were obtained by Edman sequencing of the tryptic digests. The first sequence was too short to search, but there was no match for the second sequence in the NCBI nr or Est databases.