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Calcifying aponeurotic fibroma (CAF) is an uncommon benign tumor and a locally aggressive fibroblastic lesion. It commonly affects the palmar side of the hand and fingers, and the soles of the feet. The typical clinical manifestations are known as a poorly circumscribed, slow-growing, and asymptomatic firm mass. Most CAFs usually reveal low to intermediate or isointensity on T1-weighted images, and strong heterogeneous enhancement. However, various signal intensities on T2-weighted images have been reported depending on the degree of hypocellularity or the amount of calcification or collagen within the tumor. This report provides the radiographic and MRI finding of CAF arising in uncommon site, the knee region, of a 19-year-old male who presented with a painful and palpable mass.
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The pathological condition of excessive melanogenesis causing freckles, melasma, senile lentigo, pigmented acne scars, and cancer has a critical impact on the wellness of individuals. The mechanism of melanogenesis is related to the expression of melanogenic enzymes. Here, we evaluated the inhibitory effect of pine cone (Pinus densiflora) extracts on melanogenesis. P. densiflora, the Korean Red Pine, is the predominant tree species in the cool, temperate forests of northeast Asia, occurring in pure stands across Korea, Japan, and parts of northern China and Russia. P. densiflora leaves, pollen, and bark have been widely used for traditional medicine, or edible purposes. However, pine cones are rarely used as natural raw materials, although they contain many bioactive phytochemicals. The pine cone ethyl acetate fraction (PEF) showed no toxicity to B16F10 cells at a concentration of less than 100 ㎍/mL. PEF inhibited the expression of microphthalmiaassociated transcription factor (MITF), tyrosinase and tyrosinase-related factors in B16F10 cells treated with 3-Isobutyl- 1-methylxanthine (IBMX). These results suggest that pine cones can be used as an effective natural melanogenesis inhibitory agent.
Vehicle emissions regulations are becoming increasingly severe and remain a principal issue for vehicle manufacturers. Since, WLTP (Worldwide harmonized Light vehicles Test Procedures) and RDE (real driving emission) regulations have been recently introduced, the engine operating conditions have been rapidly changed during the emission tests. Significantly more emissions are emitted during transient operation conditions compared to those at steady state operation conditions. For a diesel engine, combustion control is one of the most effective approaches to reduce engine exhaust emissions, particularly during the transient operation. The concern of this paper is about reducing emissions using a closed loop combustion control system which includes a EGR rate estimation model. The combustion control system calculates the angular position where 50 % of the injected fuel mass is burned (MFB50) using in-cylinder pressure for every cycle. In addition, the fuel injection timing is changed to make current MFB50 follow the target values. The EGR rate can be estimated by using trapped air mass and in-cylinder pressure when the intake valves are closed. When the EGR rate is different from the normal steady conditions, the target of MFB50 and the fuel injection timing are changed. The accuracy of the model is verified through engine tests, as well as the effect of combustion control. The peaks in NO level was decreased during transient conditions after adoption of the EGR model-based closed loop combustion control system.
Four species of the subgenus Aethina Erichson sensu stricto are recognized in Korea, including two species newto Korea: Aethina (s.str) aeneipennis, and the small hive beetle (SHB), A. (s.str) tumida. This is the first report of the small hive beetle in the Far Eastern Asia,which has been recently spreading worldwide, causing big economic loss in beekeeping industry. Comments on external and genital structures, brief biology, illustrations of the genitalia of both male and female, and a key to species of the subgenus Aethina s. str. are provided. As SHB becomesworldwide issues in apiculture, the invasion history of A. tumida into Korea and its larval description are also provided.
Atrial tachycardia (AT) originating from the aortomitral junction is a very rare and challenging disease. Its arrhythmic characteristics have not been described in detailcompared with the descriptions of the arrhythmic characteristics of AT originatingfrom the other locations. Only a few case reports have documented successfulablation of this type of AT using transaortic or transseptal approaches. We describea case with AT that was resistant to right-sided ablation near the His bundle failed and transaortic ablation at the aortomitral junction successfully eliminated.