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Purpose: New-onset postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF) is associated with poor short- and long-term outcomes after isolated coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. This study evaluated gender differences in the long-term clinical implications of POAF. Materials and Methods: After propensity score matching, a gender-based comparison of long-term (>1 year) newly developed atrial fibrillation (LTAF) and mortality between 1664 (480 females) consecutive patients with (POAF) and without POAF (no-POAF) who had undergone CABG was performed. Results: During a follow-up of 49±28 months, cumulative survival free of LTAF was lower in the POAF group than in the no-POAF group for both males (92.1% vs. 98.2%, p<0.001) and females (84.1% vs. 98.0%, p<0.001). However, female patients with POAF more frequently developed LTAF than male POAF patients (13.9 % vs. 6.9%, p=0.049). In multivariate analysis, POAF was a significantpredictor of LTAF among males [hazard ratio (HR) 4.91; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.22−19.79, p=0.031] and females (HR 16.50; 95% CI 4.79−56.78; p<0.001). POAF was a predictor of long-term mortality among females (adjusted HR 3.96; 95% CI 1.13−13.87, p=0.033), but not among males. Conclusion: Although POAF was related to LTAF in both genders, cumulative survival free of LTAF was poorer among females than among males. Additionally, a significant correlation with long-term mortality after CABG was observed among female patientswith POAF.
Although a copper catalyst has very interesting properties in CO<sub>2</sub> electroreduction reaction (CO<sub>2</sub>ER), high overpotential and low selectivity for a single product are major hindrances for commercialization. In this work, we synthesized monodisperse Cu-Pd nanoparticles(NPs) with various composition through the colloidal method, which shows a totally different catalytic performance from bulk Cu catalysts. Among the synthesized alloy NPs, CuPd (1:1) NPs showed the best catalytic performance to convert CO<sub>2</sub> to CO. At -0.9 V (vs. RHE), CuPd NP showed 87% CO faradaic efficiency, and high noble metal mass activity of 47 mA mgPd-1 for CO production. From DFT calculation, the energy barrier of CO<sup>*</sup> protonation step is increased when palladium is alloyed to copper, which suppress the reduction of CO<sub>2</sub> into hydrocarbons.
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To understand the influence relationship between online tourism search words and exposure volume of marine tourism, in this study, five marine tourism experts were formed, and they derived 10 items of search words for Yeosu marine tourism resources using Strategy Canvas analysis and ERRC action framework method. This study used Naver Datalab(datalab.naver.com) for the search word index and used Keyword Manager 2.0 for the exposure volume of search words. The collection period was set for one month from October 4(Friday) to November 3(Sunday), 2019, to secure mutual unity. A simple regression analysis was performed using SPSS 21.0 to analyze the relationship between the search word index and the search word exposure volume. To look at the results, for one month, the search words were high on weekends(Friday and Saturday), reflecting the characteristics of the trip destination on Friday and Saturday, and the exposure volume on the PC was highest in Yeosu trip, and that of Dolsan Bridge was the lowest. On the Mobile, Odongdo was found to be the highest and Dolsan Bridge was the lowest. The hypothesis was adopted because the effect of the search word index on the exposure was found to be statistically significant, and therefore, the index of the search words and the exposure volume of the search words were found to be correlated and mutually influenced. On the basis of this, this study suggested a promotion strategy of marine tourism city.
Diphyllobothrium latum infection in humans is not common in Republic of Korea. We report a case of fish tapeworm infection in a 10-year-old boy after ingestion of raw perch about 8 months ago. The patient complained of recurrent abdominal pain and watery diarrhea. A tapeworm, 85 cm in length, without scolex and neck, was spontaneously discharged in the feces of the patient. The patient was treated with 15-mg/kg single dose praziquantel, and follow-up stool examination was negative after one month. There was no evidence of relapse during the next six months.
Many orporations have committed crimes, in the process of industrial development. Now, we realize that there are many problems in regulating the corporation crimes, because it is difficult to punish the corporation only through the traditional criminal laws. The traditional criminal sanctions against corporation crime include imprisonment, fine and forfeiture. But criminal sanctions cannot expect the effectiveness of deterrence of crimes because it has been provided just only fine as a sanction against corporations in a position denying criminal capacity. We should improve the inefficiency of the fine penalty and imprisonment against corporation. It is necessary to increase the amount of fine in order to substantially decrease the corporation crimes taking into account generally the average assets of corporation. Furthermore, it is reasonable to make a difference to the amount of fine between human beings and corporation in the provision of bilateral punishment. Also, it is ideal to introduce daily fine system in the long view. New penal sanctions against corporation, including probation, restitution, community service will contribute to improve the fundamental structure of corporations. 전통적인 형법체계상 법인의 범죄능력을 부인하기 때문에 기업의 경우 자연인과 동일하게 처벌되어 효율적인 형사제재가 되지 못한다는 비판이 있어왔다. 현행법상 기업에 대한 제재방식으로는 기업의 대표자 등에 대한 자유형, 기업 및 기업대표자에 대한 벌금형, 제한적으로나마 몰수제도가 운영되고 있다. 그러나 이러한 제재방식은 기업범죄의 특수성을 충분히 반영하지 못하고 있고 자연인인 개인과 동일한 형태로 기업을 처벌하고 있기 때문에 기업은 가벼운 처벌로 여기게 되고 영업이익을 위해 제재의 위험을 감수하고라도 범죄를 저지르게 되는 상황이다. 기존의 형사제재 방식 가운데 자유형과 벌금형은 그 법정형을 개인에 대한 제재의 경우보다 인상해야 하고, 특히 벌금형의 경우에는 일수벌금형제도의 마련이나 자연인과 기업의 벌금액을 분리하는 노력을 해야 한다. 몰수 역시 무형적 이익이나 제3자의 소유물의 경우 적용될 수 없으므로 기업범죄에 대응하기 위해서는 이익·가치몰수제도의 도입, 제3자 소유물에 대한 몰수, 기소 또는 유죄판결과 독립된 몰수 등이 가능하도록 하여야 한다. 기업범죄에 대한 새로운 형사제재수단으로서 원상회복, 보호관찰, 사회봉사명령 등에 대한 도입여부도 검토할 필요가 있다. 원상회복은 그 범위와 내용을 명확히 하고, 독립된 제재형태보다는 원상회복을 조건으로 기업의 불법행위에 대하여 보호관찰이나 사회봉사명령을 독립된 주형으로 가해야 한다. 기업에 대한 보호관찰의 경우 지나치게 과도한 개입은 기업의 경영활동에 대한 사법적 통제가 될 수 있기 때문에 보호관찰을 부과함에 있어서 명확한 기준이 제시되어야 한다. 특히 보호관찰이 효과적으로 운영되기 위해서는 보호관찰관의 전문지식이 구비되어야 하고, 보호관찰을 위한 상당한 인력이 확보되어야 하며, 기업보호관찰로 인한 비용증가의 문제도 해결되어야 한다. 또한 기업에 대하여는 벌금형의 부과를 유예하고 보호관찰을 부과하는 집행유예제도의 도입이 필요하다. 기업에 대한 사회봉사명령은 불성실하게 실시될 우려가 있기 때문에 금전적인 기부보다는 프로그램이 실질적으로 운영될 수 있는 방향으로 접근해야 할 것이다.
Purpose: Prostatic abscess is a very rare disease whose incidence has been reported to be approximately 0.2% in patients with urologic symptoms. Besides, it cannot be diagnosed by interview and physical examination, for which imaging studies must also be performed. In the current study, we examined the clinical usefulness of imaging studies in making a diagnosis of prostatic abscess and the effect of a fine needle aspiration based on trans-rectal ultrasonography on the treatment outcomes. Materials and Methods: In ten patients who were diagnosed with prostatic abscess and then treated during a period ranging from January of 1995 to June of 2008 (mean age: 61.8 years, range: 40-89 years), a past history, clinical symptoms, physical examination findings, laboratory findings, trans-rectal ultrasonography findings, computed tomography findings, treatment modalities and complications were retrospectively analyzed. Results: All patients complained fever and voiding dysfunction as chief complaint. On trans-rectal ultrasonography and computed tomography scans, all the ten patients had abnormal findings. In five patients, there were nonhomogenous hypo-echoic lesions on trans-rectal ultrasonography. All the patients had cystic abscess lesions detected on computed tomography scans. In four patients, in whom the diameter of lesions was greater than 1cm on computed tomography scans, a fine needle aspiration was performed on trans-rectal ultrasonography and antibiotic treatment was performed. In six patients, in whom the diameter of lesions was smaller than 1 cm on computed tomography scans, antibiotic treatment was performed. There were statistically significant differences in the length of hospital stay and the size of prostate gland between the group where a fine needle aspiration was performed using trans-rectal ultrasonography and the group where antibiotic treatment was performed (P<0.05). However, there was no significant difference in the period of antibiotic treatment (P>0.05). Length of antibiotic therapy was shorter in antibiotic therapy only group, but there was no statistically significant difference (P>0.05). Conclusions: A computed tomography is a useful diagnostic modality for prostatic abscess. Besides, a fine needle aspiration based on trans-rectal ultrasonography is one of the minimally invasive treatment regimens for prostatic abscess, whose good treatment outcomes have been well documented. Furthermore, there were no severe complications in our series.