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Solubility of nitrogen in liquid iron and iron-Ni-Cr alloys has been measured by the sampling method under 1 atm N₂pressure. Results obtained are as follows ; 1. Nitrogen solubility and free energy change of nitrogen solution in liquid iron melts respectively are, log (wt % N)= -357/T -1.152 ΔG˚= 6830+22.06T J/g-atom N 2. Enthalpy change in liquid Fe-8%Ni-Cr alloys is, ΔH = 11060-2.33(wt % Cr) J/g-atom N 3. Interaction parameter in Fe-8%Ni-Cr alloy is e = -128/T+0.031
For p∈H²+P, x∈M², we define the function Lp(x) to be the distance in H²+P from p to x. We then define the concept of a focal point of (M², x) and prove an Index Theorem for Lp which states that the index of Lp at a non-degenerate critical point x is equal to the number of focal points of (M², x) on the geodesic in H²+P from x to p. We prove that a metric sphere S²⊂H²+P can be characterized by the condition that every Morse function of the form Lp, p∈H²+P, has exactly 2 critical points.
Ⅰ. The Purpose of the Study Hyo-ethics has been a central ideology for a long time from the old age in Korea. Our country, however, came to reveal a moal-absented phenomenon because of the confused sense of values by the influence of the western machine and material civilization. Besides, Koreans has had the spirit of insubordination against morality that has been handed down from the Yi Dynasty. We also accepted western civilization thoughtlessly and put great emphasis upon industrial development. Therefore, the fading of traditional Hyo-ethics results from the thought that conventional morality is worn out and new one is good. It probably seems that Hyo-ethics is old and out of date. Taking such a trend into consideration, the study on the basic directions of Hyo(filial-piety) that is the source of the Korean morality is felt indispensible and this study is begun to research. Ⅱ. The Method of the Study 1. By means of the bibliographic materials, the essentiality of traditional Hyo-ethics is examined and studied. 2. The traditional Hyo-ideology is examined and analyzed in modern style among middle & high school students and their parents in Seoul City. 3. In order to clarify the basic directions of Hyo-ideology of modern people, it is sampled, analyzed and studied through the questionaires prepared by the reporter in advance. Sampling is divided into two groups - one is a students' group and the other is a parents' group. The former group is divided into two - that is, middle & high school students and boy & girl students. The latter one is divided into three by age - that is, persons of below 35 years. persons from 36 to 45 years and of above 46 years. 4. On the basis of traditional Hyo-ideology and the Hyo-ethical sense of modern students and their parents, the basic directions of Hyo(filial-piety) are showed. Ⅲ. The Result of the Study The result shown in this study on the basic directions of Hyo is summarized as follow; 1. In the point of the Hyo-ethical view as a traditional concept; Modern people (students and their parents in Seoul City) have the same opinions in the Hyo on 'self-preservation.' As to the filial-piety on 'obedience', modern people obey to their parents' will only when their will is right. As to 'respect', children's respect and parents' love are to be formed simultaneously. As to 'serving their parents', not only students but also their parents think that they all should wait upon their parents living in the same house. As to 'support', the thought that they should be dutiful to their parents in spite of their sacrifice is well formed. They give thanks to their parents who has brought up them. As to remonstrance, they are trying to follow their parents' opinions, however, they think that they should remonstrate when their parents' opinions are wrong. As to the Hyo after the death of their parents, it generally showed a high denial reaction to the classical moral sense such as mourning decorums. Accordingly, they agree to "the Simplified Family Ritual Standards." 2. In the point of essence of Hyo-ethics; They think that Hyo-ethics should be put into practice so as to restore domestic and social morality. As to the ideal Hyo-ethical view, it is the true morality to make their parents feel at ease rather than both material supporting and success in life. As to the directions of Hyo, the Hyo-ethics should be founded on the basis of the spirit such as 'love and respect' and 'service and sacrifice.' It showed a high denial reaction to the Hyo-ethics of outdated, unreasonable and unreal traditional Hyo methods. 3. In the point of the basic directions of Hyo among children and their parents; As to the ideal relationship between father and son, a son wants his parents to take good care of him. As to the attitude on parents of children, the absolute majority think that children themselves ought to respect their parents properly. The reasons why the filial piety isn't able to be put into practice are the change of an age, the change of the family system and the standard of moral value. They think one of the reasons why filial devotion can't be fulfilled is their own laziness. Finally their parents as well as children understand and feel sympathy for the classical Hyo-ethics. The traditional Hyo-ethical view is well formed except for the unreal filial-piety because of the change of an age or modern material civilization. It also showed that they put an emphasis on the mental and internal side more than the material and external one.