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      • KCI등재

        두 얼굴의 주공

        이승률 동양고전학회 2019 東洋古典硏究 Vol.0 No.75

        In early China, there were two distinct images of the Duke of Zhou. One is the "Duke of Zhou as the virtuous," and the other is "Duke of Zhou as the establisher of ritual and music (i.e. social institutions)." In texts of the pre-Qin and Western Han period such as the Tsinghua Manuscripts, Shangshu, Lunyu, Mengzi, Xunzi that mention the Duke of Zhou, the former is prevalent. The latter is found in the so called "ancient texts," but these can be dated to post-Western Han. However, the emergence of the image of "Duke of Zhou as the establisher of ritual and music" was not a coincidence. Rather, it became a scholarly and political issue because of the historical events that unfolded during the late Western Han. These include Liu Xiang and Liu Xin's finding of the ancient versions of Zuozhuan and Liji, while their compiling of the imperial bibliography, and Wang Mang's usurpation, when he claimed himself as the regent under the mask of the Duke of Zhou. The two faces of the Duke of Zhou, which seem so obvious to modern scholars were historical constructs. These images required a thousand years to formulate and started to be generalized only towards the end of the Western Han period. 중국 고대에는 2종의 ‘周公象’이 있었다. ‘유덕자로서의 주공’과 ‘예악 제정자로서의 주공’이 그것이다. 淸華簡⋅『尙書』⋅『論語』⋅『孟子』⋅『荀子』 및 주공에 관한 언급이 있는 先秦⋅前漢시대의 문헌들에서는 거의 대부분 전자의 예만 나타난다. 후자의 예가 나타나는 것은 문헌적으로는 古文 經典이지만 시기적으로는 전한말기 이후의 일이다. 그런데 이런 현상이 나타난 것은 결코 우연이 아니다. 왜냐 하면 예악 제정자로서의 주공이 학술적⋅정치적으로 이슈화되는 것은, 전한말기에 劉向⋅劉歆이 도서 정리를 하면서 『좌전』⋅『예기』 등의 고문 경전을 입수한 일이나, 王莽이 주공을 빙자해 권력을 장악하고 제도 개혁을 통해 섭정을 하려고 했던 정치적 사건과 직접적으로 관련이 있기 때문이다. 현재 대부분의 학자들이 당연시하고 있는 ‘두 얼굴의 주공’은, 천여 년이라는 오랜 세월에 걸쳐 역사적으로 형성된 것이며, 왕망을 전후한 시기 및 그 이후에 일반화된 관념이다.

      • KCI등재

        Optical Coherence Tomographic Observation of Morphological Features of Neointimal Tissue after Drug-Eluting Stent Implantation

        이승률,홍명기,신동호,김중선,김병극,고영국,최동훈,장양수 연세대학교의과대학 2014 Yonsei medical journal Vol.55 No.4

        Purpose: The impacts of different time courses and the degree of neointimal growth on neointimal morphology have not yet been sufficiently investigated. Therefore, we evaluated the morphological features of neointimal tissue after drug-eluting stent (DES) implantation using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Materials and Methods: The morphological features of neointimal tissue in stentedsegments with a maximal percentage of cross-sectional area (CSA) stenosis of neointima were evaluated in 507 DES-treated lesions with >100 μm mean neointimalthickness on follow-up OCT. Neointimal tissue was categorized as homogeneous,heterogeneous, layered, or neoatherosclerotic. Results: In lesions with <50% of neointimal CSA stenosis, homogeneous neointima (68.2%) was predominant,followed by heterogeneous neointima (14.1%) and layered neointima (14.1%). In lesions with ≥50% of neointimal CSA stenosis, layered neointima was most frequently observed (68.3%), followed by neoatherosclerotic neointima (25.2%). In subgroup analysis of lesions with ≥50% of neointimal CSA stenosis, 89.5% of the lesions with a stent age <30 months were layered neointima, while 62.3% of the lesions with a stent age ≥30 months were neoatherosclerotic neointima. Conclusion: This study suggests that the OCT-detected morphology of DES neointimal tissue was different according to the follow-up time course and degree of neointimal hyperplasia.

      • KCI등재

        The Effect of Sex and Anthropometry on Clinical Outcomes in Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention for Complex Coronary Lesions

        이승률,홍명기,신동호,김중선,김병극,고영국,최동훈,장양수 연세대학교의과대학 2017 Yonsei medical journal Vol.58 No.2

        Purpose: To evaluate the effects of sex and anthropometry on clinical outcomes in patients who underwent percutaneous coronaryintervention (PCI). Materials and Methods: From three randomized trials (REal Safety and Efficacy of 3-month dual antiplatelet Therapy following Endeavor zotarolimus-eluting stent implantation, Impact of intraVascular UltraSound guidance on outcomes of Xience Prime stents in Long lesions, Chronic Total Occlusion InterVention with drUg-eluting Stents), we compared 333 pairs of men and womenmatched by propensity scores, all of whom underwent intravascular ultrasound (IVUS)-guided PCI for complex lesions. Results: For 12 months, the incidence of adverse cardiac events, defined as the composite of cardiac death, target lesion–related myocardial infarction, and target lesion revascularization, was not different between women and men (2.4% vs. 2.4%, p=0.939). Using multivariable Cox’s regression analysis, post-intervention minimum lumen area [MLA; hazard ratio (HR)=0.620, 95% confidenceinterval (CI)=0.423–0.909, p=0.014] by IVUS was a predictor of adverse cardiac events. Height on anthropometry and lesionswith chronic total occlusion were significantly related to post-intervention MLA. However, female sex was not independentlyassociated with post-intervention MLA. In an age and sex-adjusted model, patients in the low tertile of height exhibited a greater risk for adverse cardiac events than those in the high tertile of height (HR=6.391, 95% CI=1.160–35.206, p=0.033). Conclusion: Sex does not affect clinical outcomes after PCI for complex lesions. PCI outcomes, however, may be adversely affectedby height.

      • KCI등재

        쓰다 소키치(津田左右吉)의 ‘중국’ 도가 연구와 아시아 멸시관

        이승률 (사)율곡학회 2019 율곡학연구 Vol.39 No.-

        Sōkichi Tsuda consistently viewed and labeled 'Chinese' Daoism negatively. Teeming with this characteristic, at the background of Tsuda's research lies the will to academically corroborate the originality and universality of Japanese culture [making Japanese Nationalism] and establish the leading role of Japan as well as confirming her superiority over China. Tsuda's research on Daoism is one of his studies on 'China' based on this purpose. To meet the objective, Tsuda stresses Japan's superiority by pointing out and viewing with contempt the academic and cultural inferiority of China and Korea. Tsuda's inner world was deeply inherent with anti-Chinese and Korean sentiment, the prototype of the post-colonial situation that can be witnessed in today's Japan. Moreover, Tsuda denies and deconstructs "the East" to distinguish Japan from Asian countries such as China and India. Tsuda also argues that Japan should guide the scholarship of China and Europe, a type of 'scholarly imperialism.' Tsuda's Japanese nationalism was rooted in his fervent adherence to the notion of 'reverence to the emperor' and 'national essence.' 쓰다 소키치는 ‘중국’ 도가사상을 시종일관 부정적인 의미로 규정하고 평가한다. 이런 특징을 지닌 그의 연구의 이면에는 일본문화의 독자성과 세계성을 학문적으로 규명하고,[일본 국민주의 만들기] 중국에 대한 일본의 우월성과 지도(指導)적 지위를 확립해야 한다는 목적의식이 있었다. 그의 도가 연구는 이런 목적 하에 수행된 일련의 ‘중국’ 연구 중의 하나다. 그 목적을 달성하기 위해 쓰다는 학술적ㆍ문화적으로 중국ㆍ한국 등 아시아 국가들의 열등성을 지적하고 멸시함으로써 일본의 우월성을 부각시킨다. 그런 그의 내면세계에는 오늘날 일본의 포스트 콜로니얼리즘적인 상황의 프로토타입이라고 할 수 있는 혐중(嫌中)ㆍ혐한(嫌韓) 의식이 깊게 내재해 있었다. 또 ‘동양’을 부정하고 해체시킴으로써 일본을 중국ㆍ인도 등 아시아 제국(諸國)과 차별화시킨다. 더 나아가 중국과 유럽의 학문을 일본이 지도해야 한다는 ‘학문의 제국주의’적 주장을 편다. 이런 쓰다의 ‘일본 국민주의’의 바탕에는 ‘존황(尊皇)’과 ‘국체(國體)’에 대한 신봉이 있었다.

      • A study on Change of Failure rate for CCA by Reliability Analysis Methods and Operation Environment condition

        이승률,박경덕,전동주,이수중 한국산업경영시스템학회 2016 한국산업경영시스템학회 학술대회 Vol.2016 No.추계

        When weapon system is designed and developed, a reliability is one of important factors to determine the development goal. The reliability analysis of the weapon system and equipment is based on MIL Specification, MIL-HDBK-217F and MIL-HDBK-338B. And the weapon system is operated on various environments by operating concept of the military using the weapon system. This study, at first, present failure rate by PSA comparing with failure rates by PCM, the different reliability analysis method, for same CCA(Circuit Card Assembly). And the study present change of reliability analysis results for CCA on various operation environment condition..

      • KCI등재
      • KCI등재

        Formation and Transformation of Neointima after Drug-eluting Stent Implantation: Insights from Optical Coherence Tomographic Studies

        이승률,홍명기,장양수 대한심장학회 2017 Korean Circulation Journal Vol.47 No.6

        After coronary stent implantation, neointima formation resembles the wound healing process as it involves the sequential processes of inflammation, granulation, and remodeling. Because antiproliferative drugs and polymers of drug-eluting stents (DESs) delay vascular healing compared with bare metal stents, fibrin deposition can remain long after stent implantation, or inflammation can be excessive. Delayed vascular healing can be associated with adverse clinical outcomes including DES thrombosis or restenosis, and poor endothelization of DES neointima can accelerate neoatherosclerotic change inside the neointima, further contributing to luminal restenosis or neointimal instability. Despite the lack of correlation between pathologic and optical coherence tomography (OCT) findings, OCT assessments of neointima under various circumstances can reveal vascular responses to stent therapy. Homogeneous, heterogeneous, and layered neointima patterns can be recognized by OCT and can change with time. Homogeneous neointima might be associated with better clinical outcomes after DES implantation, whereas non-homogeneous neointima or neoatherosclerotic change can be associated with poorer clinical outcomes. However, limited data are currently available, and further studies are required to comprehensively address these questions.

      • KCI등재

        순자는 왜 ‘성악’을 주장해야 했는가

        이승률 영남퇴계학연구원 2019 퇴계학논집 Vol.- No.24

        Xunzi had set its socio-political ideals based on experience from the practical world and formulated a philosophical framework that seeks the origin of contemporary issues in human nature. Xunzi’s notion of “good” and “evil” is related to the order and chaos of All-under-Heaven. It was conceived to legitimatize the raison d'être and the pivotal role of the “sage-kings” and “ritual and righteousness.” The sociopolitical goal of Xunzi was to take “the concept of artificial order” as a ground to control and discriminate humans and their desires rigidly with the means of “classification.” This was to aid the ruling class (rulers, service-gentlemen) in ruling the ruled, uniformly and efficiently, in the anticipated new era. This line of thought runs consistently throughout the entirety of Xunzi. The significance of Xunzi’s theory on “human nature” is that it criticized previous discourses such as Mengzi’s thought on the “concept of natural order,” Zhuangzi’s thought on the “division between the natural and the artificial,” and Mozi’s “criticism on Confucians.” It is also in that it yearned to establish an “artificial order,” in which the ruler and service-gentlemen are the principal agents. 순자는 현실 세계의 경험을 바탕으로 사회정치적 목표를 설정하고, 그 원인을 인간의 ‘성’에서 찾는 이론 틀을 구축했다. 그가 말하는 ‘선’과 ‘악’은 ‘천하의 치란’과 관련된 것이며, ‘성왕’과 ‘예의’의 존재의의와 적극적인 역할을 정당화시키기 위해 요청된 것이다. 순자가 지향하는 사회정치적 실천 목표는 ‘인위적 질서관’에 입각해 인간과 그 욕망을 ‘분(分)’에 따라 철저히 차별화하고 통제함으로써, 다가올 통일된 천하에서 치자[君主ㆍ士君子]가 피치자를 효율적으로 지배하는 것이다. 이것은 『순자』 전 편에 걸쳐 일관된 철학이다. 순자 심성론의 의의는 그가 종래에 맹자가 주장해 온 ‘자연적 질서관’과 『장자』의 ‘천인분리론(天人分離論)’ 및 묵가의 ‘비유론(非儒論)’ 등을 비판하고, 군주와 사군자를 주체로 하는 ‘인위적 질서관’을 확립하려고 했다는 데 있다.

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