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Korea reformed its Minimum Wage Act on May 31, 2005. It stipulated a step-by-step annual incremental increase in the minimum wage for surveillance and intermittent workers, with the entire Minimum Wage Act to apply to them from January 1, 2015 onward. Nevertheless, according to the Article 63 of the Labor Standards Act, surveillance and intermittent workers still are the object of exclusion in working hours, recess hours, and holidays. The reason for this exclusion comes from the perception that their labor intensity is trivial in form, environment, and duties, etc. In general, in Korea apartment guards are classified as 'surveillance workers' and 'intermittent workers'. This article examines the working conditions of guards employed at apartment complexes in Goyang city. The findings show that their labor intensity is not much different compared with regular workers. The findings point to the need to reform the Labor Standards Act for surveillance workers and intermittent workers.
Three Linyphiid spiders, Caviphantes pseudosaxetorum Wunderlich, 1979, Erigone edentata Saito and Ono, 2001, and Savignia kawachiensis Oi, 1960, are reported for the first time from Korea with taxonomic illustrations and redescription. In this study, the genus Caviphantes Oi, 1960 is also newly recorded to Korean spider fauna.
Backgrounds: Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) are members of G-protein-coupled receptors. They can induce agonist-dependent neoplastic transformation and facilitate colon cancer proliferation via promoting rapid expression of a variety of early responsive genes. Methods: In this study, we used 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis(2-DE) approach with subsequent mass spectrometry (MS) to identify up- and down-regulated proteins (a total of 23 protein spots) involved in mAChRs-related signaling pathway, energy metabolism, transcription/translation, oxidative stress metabolism and cytoskeleton organization in agonist carbachol stimulated HT-29 human colon cells. Results: We found that the increased expression of adenocarcinoma biomarker, annexin A5 (ANXA5) induced by carbachol treatment, which was confirmed by immunoblot. This study contributes to the understanding of mechanisms underlying mAChRs agonist-induced expression of whole proteins in HT-29 colon cancer cells. Conclusion: Our results indicated that ANXA5 might serve as a potential biomarker for the diagnosis of colon cancer.
Rearing is important to the growth and development of the child. Traditionally, nurturing is a maternal role which is expressive role. Maternal role was composed of mothering and maternicity. Rearing is a key concept of psychology, education and sociology discipline. Knowledge of the rearing is an essential component for the development of nursing as a science and a profession. The first thing to study a concept is thought to be a concept analysis. So, in this study, concept analysis of the rearing was performed to clarify a concept of the rearing as a basis for the study of rearing afterward. The approach used for the concept analysis was the approach presented by Walker and Avant (1993). The defining attributes of rearing, identified in this study were (1) a series of caring activities in parent-child relation, (2) an essential of the growth and development of a child, (3) changeable according to time, place and object, (4) effort is necessary to the rearing, (5) positive or negative aspects (6) attitude, behavior, environment is sub-concepts of the rearing concept. The identified antecedents of the rearing was child-birth. The identified consequences of rearing were desirable or undesirable outcomes. Desirable outcome was the emotional satisfaction and growth in parent-child relation. Undesirable outcome was the emotional disorder and social maladaptation of the child. The empirical referents of the rearing could be the caring phenomena in parent-child relation.