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高麗末 李巖의 書藝世界 : 『送李愿歸盤谷序』 帖을 中心으로
이성배 국립중앙박물관 1994 미술자료 Vol.- No.53
The sast decades of the Koryperiod constituted a crucial turning point in the history of Korean calligraphy. The calligraphic style of Chao Ming-fu introduced from Yûan China in the period was a refined style that served as a fresh shock to the calligrapher of Kory, and was received by the emerging Koryliterati believing in Neo-Confucianism as suitable to express their new consciousness and spiritual state. In calligraphy of Chinese Characters a new technique means a new linear rendition, a linear rendition being a way of abstract expression of one's inner consciousness. Yi Am(李’ 1297∼1364 ; penname : Hyang ch'on) was a master of the calligraphic style of Chao Meng-fu known as Songsl style after Chao's penname. Yi's calligraphic style was different from that of his contemporaries, and he had the reputation of being the secend best Korean calligrapher after Kim Saeng(金生) of Shilla. Until very recently his extant calligraphic works were Munsu-sachanggyng-bi(文殊寺藏經碑) which is an inscription on stone, and Kwallan-Jngskkak(觀瀾亭石刻), Kogumbpchp(古今法帖), Ch'orokwanju(草露寬珠), Haedongmyongj k(海東名蹟), Tae-dongsbp (大東書法) and Tonggukmyngp'il(東國名筆), which are all inscriptions on wooden panels. It has been recently learned that the library of Yamaguchi Women's University in Japan has two calligraphic works by Yi. As most of these works are from his 30s and after, they were not very helpful for learning about Yi's style in his 20s when he introduced Songsl style to Kory . (Written sources mention that Yi was an active calligrapher at the time of the introduction of Songsl style.) Fortunately, what appears to be the first inscription on wooden panels of Yi's Song Yi Wn kwiban-goks (送李愿歸盤谷序) has been discovered recently, providing us with reliable material to study his style at the time of the introduction of the songsl style. In his 20s Yi wrote such works as Tonggukmyngp'il before the introduction of the Songsl style, Kwallan-jngs kkak which began to show the influence of Songsl style and Song Yi Won kwiban-gokso rendered under the influence of Songsl style, and in his 30s Yi left Munsu-sachanggyeng-bi, and in his 40s Yi did Haedongmyngjok and Taedongsbp to establish his own style which was an evolution from Songsl style. Two calligraphic works entitled Ch'unu(春雨) and Togang(渡江) are from his 50s and after. Before his exposure to the Songsl style Yi's brushstrokes and arrangement of radicals of Chinese characters were rather stark and meticulous. Yi's style in his 20s, or the early period when he was exposed to Songs l style, was warm and soft, closely resembling the Chinese master's technique. Yi's calligraphy in his 30s, or the middle period, indicates that while under the influence of the Songs l style he was developing his own firm strokes. The works in the late period, meanwhile, show that Yi Am was free the from the Songs l style and that the his style was generous and yet forceful. Yi's style in this period marked the beginning of the "Koreanized Songs l style" In his last period Yi Am's calligraphic works grew even more forceful. It may be said that these changes reflected the shift in the spiritual emphasis of the Korean people from the generous and merciful Buddhist values to the rigorous and disciplined Neo-confucian values and the ensuing changes in the aesthetic sense. The new calligraphic style may be said to reveal partly the aesthetic sensibility of the literati at the time. Song Yi W n kwiban-goks extensively dealt with in this paper is presumed to be a work of Yi's 20s and is a reliable source for illustrating more clearly the process of the introduction of the Songs l style to Korea. The work shows a style that is characterized by aesthetically attractive brushstrokes generous use of space and a dignified air of refinement. It also reflects the influence of Wang Hsi-Chih(王羲之) and Chu Yang-shun(歐陽詢). In conclusion speaking, Yi Am's gentle yet forceful calligraphy of high refinement indicate characteristics of the late Kory period when the Song l style was introduced and that his style began the Koreanized Songs l style. In Korean calligraphic history Yi Am is significant as the calligrapher who successfully expressed the aes thetic sensibility of the newly emerging literati of the late Kory period and as the calligrapher whose tradition needs to be inherited and transcended for the further development of Korean calligraphy.
이성배,Lee, Seong-Bae 한국양봉협회 2008 양봉협회보 Vol.331 No.-
강원도 고랭지 지역과 서해안 해안이나 도서 지역에서만 6월 초순경까지 일부 아카시아 꽃이 남아 있어 유밀이되는데 기온이 높을 때는 수분도 많고 꿀 분비도 잘 안되어 밀원으로서의 가치가 별로 없게 된다. 아카시아 채밀도 끝나고 밤꿀 이나 화분, 로얄제리 생산이나 분봉 등을 시키는 시기가 되겠다. 6월에 개화되는 꽃으로는 밤나무, 대추나무, 흑싸리, 찔레, 다래 등이 주요 밀원인데 그 중 밤나무, 대추나무에서는 채밀 할 수 있으나 찔레, 다래등은 화분만으로 만족해야 할 것이다. 만일 밤, 대추에서도 장마가 일찍 오면 채밀은 미지수이다. 이 장마기가 양봉에 있어서 월동 다음으로 어려운 월 하기라 생각한다.
A Study of TiN-Coated Metal-on-Polymer Bearing Materials for Hip Prosthesis
이성배,최진영,박원웅,전준홍,원성옥,변지영,임상호,한승희 대한금속·재료학회 2010 METALS AND MATERIALS International Vol.16 No.4
The TiN-coated metal-on-polymer hip prosthetic pair has the potential to reduce wear debris of UHMWPE (ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene) and to prevent metallic-ion-induced cytotoxicity. However, high quality and adherent film is a key to the clinical success of hip prostheses. In this study, titanium nitride (TiN) films were deposited on stainless steel using plasma immersion ion implantation & deposition (PIII&D)technique to create high-quality film and an adherent interface. The chemical state and composition were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The mechanical properties of the films were characterized using a micro-hardness tester and a pin-on-disk wear tester, and an x-ray diffractometer (XRD) was used for a crystallographic analysis. The PIII&D-treated TiN films showed a stoichiometric and (200) preferred orientation and micro-hardness up to 150 % higher than untreated film. A TiN-coated specimen using the PIII&D process also showed less UHMWPE wear compared to untreated specimens. The volumetric wear rate of UHMWPE could be reduced by as much as 42 % compared to when Co-Cr alloy was used. The results of this study show that advanced TiN-coating via the PIII&D process is a viable means of reducing UHMWPE wear in the metal-on-polymer bearing couple.