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A wiper is a safety device removing rain and debris from windshield and ensuring visibility of drivers. If contact pressure distribution between rubber of the blade and the windshield is unbalanced, unwanted noise, vibration, and abrasion of the blade can occur and sometimes fatal accidents could occur. To improve the safety of the wiper, there have been many researches on the contact pressure analysis of the wiper, but the analysis results were not converged or require much computational time due to material nonlinearity of the rubber and contact conditions between the blade rubber and the windshield. In this research, a simple model with 1D beam and 2D shell elements was used for the contact pressure analysis instead of the 3D blade model. The simplified model saved computational time of the analysis and resolved convergence problems. The accuracy of the analysis results was verified by comparing them with experimental results for different rail spring curvatures.
It is very important to forecast demand and determine the optimal procurement quantities of spare parts. The Army has been forecasting demand not with actual usage of spare parts but with request quantities. However, the Army could not purchase all of forecasted demand quantities due to budget limit. Thus, the procurement quantities depend on the item managers' intuition and their meetings. The system currently used contains many problems. This study suggests a new determination procedure; 1) forecasting demand method based on actual usage, 2) determining procurement method through LP model with budge and other constraints. The newly determined quantities of spare parts is verified in the simulation model, that represents the real operational and maintenance situation to measure the operational availability. The result shows that the new forecasting method with actual usage improves the operational availability. Also, the procurement determination with LP improves the operational availability as well.
Steady flow bench test is a practical, powerful and widely used test in most engine manufacturers to give a design concept of a new engine. In order to use steady data as a performance index, it is necessary to build some database, which can correlate the port characteristics with engine data. However, it is very hard to investigate all port and valve shapes with experimental tools. The steady flow scheme is relatively simple and its results are bulk ones such as flow rate and momentum of flow. Therefore a CFD code can be easily applied to the port evaluation. In this study, the steady flow test was simulated through two and three-dimensional analysis on intake port design for comparing with experimental data and confirming the feasibility of applying analytic method. For this purpose, the effect of valve curvature on flow rate was estimated by a CFD code. There results were compared with those of real steady flow tests. As a result, the 2-D analysis described the phenomena qualitatively well, and also the results of 3-D analysis were almost consistent with experimental data.
Sapphire is an anisotropic material with excellent physical and chemical properties and is used as a substrate material in various fields such as LED (light emitting diode), power semiconductor, superconductor, sensor, and optical devices. Sapphire is processed into the final substrate through multi-wire saw, double-side lapping, heat treatment, diamond mechanical polishing, and chemical mechanical polishing. Among these, chemical mechanical polishing is the key process that determines the final surface quality of the substrate. Recent studies have reported that the material removal characteristics during chemical mechanical polishing changes according to the crystal orientations, however, detailed analysis of this phenomenon has not reported. In this work, we carried out chemical mechanical polishing of C(0001), R(1102), and A(1120) substrates with different sapphire crystal planes, and analyzed the effect of crystal orientation on the material removal characteristics and their correlations. We measured the material removal rate and frictional force to determine the material removal phenomenon, and performed nano-indentation to evaluate the material characteristics before and after the reaction. Our findings show that the material removal rate and frictional force depend on the crystal orientation, and the chemical reaction between the sapphire substrate and the slurry accelerates the material removal rate during chemical mechanical polishing.
본 논문은 동영상 인페이팅 기술로 생성되는 영상을 향상시키는 방안으로 시간적인 연속성을 강화 방법을 제안한다. 동영상에서의 인페이팅 기술은 정지 영상과 다르게 프레임 간의 시간적 연속성이 중요하다. 프레임 간의 시간적 연속성이 낮으면 생성된 영상에 플리커링 등의 노이즈가 발생하여 화질이 저하된다. 이러한 문제를 해결하기 위해 사전에 학습한 프레임 보간 모델을 이용한 손실함수를 통해 시간적 연속성을 강화한다. 시간적 연속성을 확인하기 위해 시간 축으로 잘려진 단면을 분석하였고 제안 방법에서 시간 축 상으로 연속성이 향상되어 노이즈가 줄어듦을 확인할 수 있었다.
본 논문은 지상작전에서 지휘관의 전술적 의사결정 과정에서 지휘관 및 참모단의 의사결정 지원을 위한 M&S 도구 활용 및 개발에 대한 연구이다. 전장이 점차 복잡해지고 고려사항이 증가하고, 상급부대 요구사항 달성과 전력 손실 및 민간인 등의 부수적 피해 최소화를 위해 지휘관에게 정확하고 빠른 의사결정이 요구되고 있다. 이를 위해 전술적 지휘조치 계획과정의 방책 수립 분석 단계에서 M&S 도구를 활용하여 향후 진행될 전장 상황을 예측하고 가시화할 수 있도록 M&S 도구의 요구기능과 개발 계획을 제시한다.
This study explores the causes and processes of morphological transformation of apartment complexes in Busan. All apartment complexes built until the year 2016 were selected for statistical analysis, drawing/map examination, field observation, selected expert interviews based on 6 periodical groups: Period I(∼1990), Period II(1991∼1995), Period III(1996∼2000), Period IV(2001∼2005), Period V(2006∼2010), and Period VI(2011∼2016). The research argues for three ‘arrangement’ types, P1U, L1U and P2U, which have dominated the whole periods occupying 88% of the total 260 complexes. The switch of the leading type represents for morphological transformation of apartment complexes. Four aspects, density(F.A.R.), height(maximum number of floors), deformed-building-type ratio, and building-orientation, have affected the change of ‘arrangement’ types. Density was the major cause of the arrangement-type switch, from P1U to L1U, on Period II(1991∼1995). The morphological change, from type L1U to P2U, on Period V(2006∼2010) was caused by height and orientation, and is correlated with the increased number of deformed-type buildings. The first phase morphological change on Period II(1991∼1995) was resulted by the supply side of apartment. However, the second phase transformation on Period V(2006∼2010) had gone through the complex process including reflection of consumers’ demands. The significance of research is to reveal the morphological transformation process of apartment complexes through analytical investigation of the entire apartment data in Busan. The result shows that the major change of urban paysage started to occur from Period V(2006∼2010), and the superficial evaluation on apartment ‘being monotonous and repetitive’ may not be proper at least from the perspective of town plan.
Steady flow bench test is a practical, powerful and widely used test in most engine manufacturers to give a design concept of a new engine. In order to use steady data as a performance index, it is necessary to build some database, which can correlate the port characteristics with engine data. However, it is very hard to investigate all port shapes with experimental tools. The steady flow scheme is relatively simple and its results are bulk ones such as flow rate and momentum of flow. Therefore a CFD code can be easily applied to the pol1 evaluation. In this study, the steady flow test was simulated through two and three-dimensional analysis on intake port design for comparing with experimental data and confirming the feasibility of applying analytic method. For this purpose, the effect of valve curvature on flow rate was estimated by a CFD code. There results were compared with those of real steady flow tests. As a result, the results 3-D analysis were almost consistent with experimental data<br/>