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This study aims at examining how John Donne (1572∼1631), one of the 17th century British metaphysical poets, influenced the development of modern English and American poetry in the 20th century. This study is also intended for investigating how he influenced the poems of Joseph Brodsky (1940∼1996), the Jewish American exile poet from USSR. It is a well-known fact that Donne has a great influence on English and American poetry in the 20th century. On the basis of T. S. Eliot’s criticism and opinion, this study will look at how Donne influenced the 20th century modern English and American poets and then compare the poetry of Donne with that of Brodsky. By looking at the similarities between the two poets, this study will create a space where we can see how Donne influenced Brodsky’s poems. Although there is an interval of about 360 years in time, it is very meaningful to examine the extent of Donne’s influence on Brodsky.
This thesis aims to show that both Shakespeare and Donne would reject Petrarchan conventions which came from courtly love in the Middle Age, and which represented a lover who suffered agonies and sickness of body and spirit at the caprices of a woman who had power over him and was very cruel to him. This rejection or defiance led Shakespeare to invent Dark Lady who was regarded as an ugly and detestable woman internally or morally as well as externally or physically. Unlike "old age"(127:1), "now"(127:3) the standard sonnet process of the idealization of the woman was impossible, and the sonnets took the demonization of the woman. The new period was differentiated as one in which merely simple reflection of the ideal woman disappeared. Therefore, the dark lady could be accepted as an icon of this new age. Shakespeare, though he sometimes employed the Petrarchan conceit himself, parodied some standard comparisons by Petrarchan sonneteers. As we know in Sonnet 130, we find that unlike a star like Stella in Sidney' work, Dark Lady was a common and black woman. In Petrarchan sonnets, the lady was ideally beautiful and virtuous. In contrast to this the Dark lady had no beauty or virtue. Donne was also inclined to parody and satirize the 'Platonic' poets who were to admire the external beauty of their mistresses as the manifestation of an internal beauty. We can find interrelations between love and politics in John Donne's The Songs and Sonnets. Donne was discomforted with serving a woman as in courtly love. He offered a different kind of service, which was clearly sexual. This kind of service rather restored male dignity; for it meant not servitude but mastery. In this respect he tried to abhor and debase a queen vertically in terms of politics and a woman horizontally in terms of private love. In The Songs and Sonnets, especially negative love poems, he had a mind to subvert a woman's rule and disrupt both court society and English church which had a belief in hierarchical order within a strict framework of social uniformity, which was basically the result of the concept of honor. The lovers in Donne's poetry attempted to be free from the mastery of a queen/a woman and reassert masculine sovereignty. To achieve this goal he, by acting on anti-Petrarchanism, disdained and abhorred the woman who was apt to be inconstant as well as untrue.
This study aims to compare and analyze the similarities between Jaluddin Muhammad Rumi, a medieval Persian poet, and John Donne, an English leading metaphysical poet in the 17th century, from the perspective of Goethe’s world literature theory. Beyond simple comparisons, this paper is to find similarities between the two authors in terms of the literature and culture of the East and the West to meet and communicate with each other. Although times, religions, and languages are different, both authors are trying to break away from the dichotomous thinking as their literary orientation, and this paper tries to reveal how it as a non-duality is embodied in the motif of love in their works. In this process, a theory of Buddhism, namely, Advita (non-duality) is referred to. Many Islamic scholars claim that Sufism, a branch of Islamic mysticism, is directly or indirectly influenced by Hinduism and Buddhism in the process of forming the mystical ideas and performing techniques of Sufism. In this respect, it is advisable that Sufism can be seen as a hybrid spirituality.
Background: Irritable bowel syndrome is a functional bowel disease including chronic abdominal discomfort and abdominal pain which is relevant to changing of defecation feature. Irritable bowel syndrome's pathway is yet to be solved perfectly. Generally speaking, obesity affects gastrointestinal symptoms such as abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and constipation. Therefore, there could be a relationship between obesity and irritable bowel syndrome. This research would like to figure out the corelation of obesity and irritable bowel syndrome and corelation of waist circumference which never been studied. Methods: The study group was from 90 colonoscopic exam patients of Health Promotion Center of Pusan national university. Among 90 of them, 19 were excluded because they had organic factor. Totally 71 patients' waist circumference were measured and researched on the corelation of Irritable bowel syndrome by using Rome II standard. Results: In women, the incident rate of obesity group (BMI≥25) and normal weight group (18.5≤BMI<25) were 60% and 9.5%, so that, the obesity group's incident rate was significantly increased in statistics. Relative risk of normal weight group without central obesity (M<90 cm, F<85 cm and 18.5≤BMI<25) compare with normal weight group with central obesity (M≥90 cm, F≥85 cm and 18.5≤BMI<25) was 4.23. Relative risk of obesity group with central obesity (M≥90 cm, F≥85 cm and BMI≥25) was 4.14. Conclusion: This research presented the corelation of irritable bowel syndrome and BMI in women and incident rate of patient with central obesity was significantly increased compare to normal weight group without central obesity. 연구배경: 과민대장증후군은 기질적 원인 없이 만성 복부 불쾌감이나 복통이 있으며 증상이 배변 양상의 변화와 관련되는 기능적 위장관 질환이다. 아직까지 과민대장증후군의 기전은 정확히 밝혀져 있지 않다. 비만은 복통, 구역, 구토, 설사, 변비 등 위장관 증상에 영향을 미친다. 본 연구는 비만 및 복부비만과 과민대장증후군의 연관성에 대해 알아보았다. 방법: 부산 소재의 3차 의료기관 외래와 건강증진센터를 방문하여 결장내시경 검사를 시행한 90명을 대상으로 하였다. 90명 중 기질적 원인을 가진 19명을 배제한 71명을 대상으로 체질량지수(body mass index, BMI)와 허리둘레(abdominal circumference, AC)를 측정하였고 로마 II 기준 사용하여 과민대장증후군과의 연관성을 조사하였다. 결과: 여성에서 비만(BMI≥25)군과 정상(18.5≤BMI<25)군을 비교시에 과민대장증후군의 유병률은 각각 60%, 9.5%로 유의하게 비만군에서 높게 나타났다. 정상(허리둘레; 남<90, 여<85 cm and 18.5≤BMI<25)군에 비해 복부비만(허리둘레; 남≥90, 여≥85 cm and 18.5≤BMI<25)군에서 오즈비(odds ratio)가 4.23이었으며, 복부비만 및 비만을 동시에 가진(허리둘레; 남≥90, 여≥85 cm and BMI≥25)군에서는 4.14로 나타났다. 결론: 본 연구결과 여성에서 과민대장증후군과 체질량지수와의 연관성이 있었고, 복부비만이 있을 경우 복부 비만이 없으며 체질량 지수가 정상인 경우보다 과민대장증후군의 위험도가 크게 나타났다.
This study calculated the weight on the probation criteria presented by the sentencing committee to be referred to when a judge is sentenced to probation for theft crimes, so that more objective and reasonable probation can be achieved. The criteria for probation presented by the sentencing committee divided positive (negative) categories into major reasons for consideration and general reasons for consideration, and this study also observed these categories. The weight was calculated by applying the AHP technique to the factors in each categories, and the research results are as follows. As a result of weighting, legal experts judged that it is reasonable to classify "no criminal record" classified as a major reason for consideration among positive reasons as a general reason for consideration, and "negative participation in crime" as a major reason for consideration. Experts judged that "same crime record" and "no recovery from damage" classified as major reasons for consideration among negative reasons should be classified as general reasons for consideration, "lead role of accomplices" and "attempt to conceal evidence" should be classified as major reasons for consideration. The case in which a actual sentenced and a case in which a suspended sentence calculated by applying weights were compared. Of the 23 cases, 7 were inconsistent, and at least 4 cases in which probation sentenced may have involved the judge's will, even though there were more negative factors in the sentence of probation. It is hoped that the results of this study will also be used as an empirical basis for the sentence of probation, and research should be conducted to rationalize the criteria for the sentence of probation with more sophisticated techniques in the future.
EV 구동 전동기에서 발생하는 소음 중 전자 기적 원인에 의해 발생하는 소음은 고정자와 회전자 슬롯 조합으로 인한 전자기력의 고조파 성분으로 인해 발생한다. 이러한 고주파 영역대의 소음은 탑승자로 하여금 거부감을 줄 수 있다. 전통기에서 발생하는 소음을 줄이기 위해 전자기적, 구조적 측변에서 많은 연구가 진행되고 있다. 본 논문은 EV 구동 유도 전동기에서 발생하는 소음을 실제 측정 통해 분석한 결과와 전자기적 소음의 원인인 전자기적 가진력을 분석한 해석 결과를 비교한다.