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The aim of this paper is to identify the institutional characteristic of the art in the early Republic of China (ROC) based on its art policy, and to trace back the positions and response measures of major art schools at the time. In the early days of the ROC, the Beijing government, with a half-feudal, halfcolonial nature, was obsessed with the economic and material values of art to secure its regime that it lacked awareness of the development of art for a modern nationstate. Also, due to failure in unification of power and financial management, control policies weren't appropriately implemented and the modernization of its art was handed over to privte professional groups. The art schools in the early ROC era showed varied attitudes towards government policies. First, the Beijing School of Fine Arts took an adaptive stance and ended its short history of only four years. Then, the Shanghai College of Fine Arts actively promoted the arts and educational projects for the construction of a modern nation-state and complemented the absence of government policy, but came into a conflict with the government while pursuing their continuous modernization route. In the late 1920s, the Beijing National College of Arts was reopened by reflecting public opinion and also resisted the government"s policy in response to civil society. As such, art schools with anti-government tendencies exerted more influence in the art during the early ROC, and a public movement-led art culture for the evolution of society and civilization prevailed over a government-led art culture. This is the most prominent characteristic of the art of this period that is distinct from other regions of Asia in the same period.
This paper examines the development and meaning of modern Chinese sculpture as a form of Republican China's modern art. China's long history of autocratic rule came to an end when the Republican China was established following the Xinhai Revolution, but afterwards the country struggled to realize its republican ideals because of extreme partisanship between forces of the left and right. At that time, the theory of ‘aesthetic education' was propounded in the art world under the influence of republican ideology; public sculpture, which began to appear along with the advent of modern public places, was its representative art form. However, public sculpture later was inevitably degenerated and distorted, just as the Republican China's reform itself was perverted. Nonetheless, some sculptors still endeavored to retain universality and the rationalist values based on the aesthetic education theory. This paper delves into the characteristics of modern Chinese sculpture and looks back on actual Chinese republican art as well as the republican ideals in modern Chinese art, which have been neglected in researches on republican art under the historical view focused on Chinese revolutions.
Objectives: To determine the effect of tibolone add- back therapy for prevention of bone mineral density loss in women treated with GnRH agonist for their endometriosis. Methods: Medical records of 179patients who had been given a laparoscopically or pathologically proven diagnosis of endometriosis and finished the 6cycles of goserelin acetate 3.78mg treatment were reviewed retrospectively. Twenty five patients were excluded because either or both pre-and post-treatment bone mineral density(BDM) examination was not carried out. The BMD of the lumbar spine(L1-L4) and femur neck was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry two times(Pre- and post-GnRH agonist treatment). Tibolone add-back therapy was given to 97patients and remaining 57patients were not received. Results: The mean age was 40.61±6.89years and mean body mass index was 23.43±3.14(kg/㎠). Comparing to pretreatment value, the mean decrease of BMD of lumbar spine and femur neck in without add-back group and with add-back group was 0.060±0.024 and 0.047±0.022, respectively. The mean decrease of BMD of lumbar spine was prevented significantly in add-back group(P=0.044). Conclusions: Tibolone add-back therapy could prevent BMD loss occurs during 6 cycles of GnRH agonist treatment especially in lumbar spine.
The differences of properties for both single-layered and multi-layered porous silicon were investigated. Multistructured porous silicons such as DBR or rugate porous silicon exhibit strong reflection resonances providing the reflection of a specific wavelength in the optical reflectivity spectrum. DBR PSi displays a square varying porosity gradient in the direction perpendicular to the plane of the filter but a sinusoidally varying porosity gradient was obtained for rugate PSi.
INitrogen dioxide is classified as major atmospheric pollutant that threatens the health of humans and influences this planet by changing climate or by affecting Earth's ecosystems and biological diversity. However, there is not much success in controlling the concentration of it. Recently, there has been effort to decrease atmospheric NOx in construction industry using various technologies. In this paper, NOx reduction technologies using cementitious materials that include photocatalysis, activated carbon adsorption process, and cement adsorption will be reviewed and compared. It is expected that the advances in NOx diminishing technologies will make our environment greener and healthier, and ultimately lead to sustainable development.
The interest and use of fly ash in cement-based materials is increasing in order to produce durable concrete and for the sustainable development. Generally, the quality of fly ash is determined by loss on ignition (LOI), and the maximum allowable LOI of fly ash used for general use concrete is set to be 5.0% in Korea. However, due to many reasons, production of high LOI fly ash and thus high carbon content fly ash is increasing, which ends up in landfill. In this study, the effect of carbon content in fly ash on NO2 adsorption was examined experimentally. The results indicate that cementitious materials have potential to adsorb nitrogen dioxide, and that the use of fly ash is more effective in NO2 adsorption. Moreover, higher LOI fly ash, and thus higher carbon content fly ash, is related to greater NO2 adsorption. These results indicate that high carbon fly ash have potential to be used in environmentally friendly way.
본고는 1930년대부터 50년대 말까지 중화민국 국민정부에 의해 추진돼온 삼민주의 문예정책과 그 이론을 토대로 중국의 우익미술이론에 대해 살펴본 것이다. 국민정부는 우파집권 시기, 쑨원(孫文)의 삼민주의에 대해 유생론(唯生論), 역행철학(力行哲學) 등 우파식 해석체계를 마련하고, 그에 따라 삼민주의, 민족주의, 민족본위, 항전건국, 민생주의와 민주로 이어지는 문예정책 노선을 추진해 갔다. 또한 이러한 사상 및 정책적 모색은 1940년대 이후 「우리에게 필요한 문예정책」(1942)과 「삼민주의문예론」(1953)이라는 두 편의 글을 통해 삼민주의 문예론으로 종합 수립되었다. 특히 후자에서 장다오판(張道藩)은 ‘삼민주의사실주의'라는 개념을 통해 ‘사실주의의 종합'이라는 창작론을 제기함으로써, 사실상 타이완 미술계에서 사실주의(Realism) 미술의 전개를 저지하고, 이를 통해 국가 이념 및 체제에 순응적인 문예계 양성과 운영을 시도했다. This study is about the right-wing theory of art viewed from the perspective of the policy of literature and culture that stood on the basis of the Three Principles of the People, pursued by the National Government of the Republic of China from the 1930s to 1950s, and the theory underlying this policy. During the period of ruling by rightists, the National Government laid the groundwork for interpreting Sun Yat Sen's Three Principles of the People from the perspective of right-wing ideas. In that regard, the government developed such ideologies as vitalism, “Deathbed Teachings of the Premier,” and the philosophy of Li-xing (practice with earnestness). The government then pursued a policy of literature and art that started its course in the era of the Three Principle of the People, followed by nationalism, national standards, the “War of Resistance and Nation-Building,” “Principle of the People's Livelihood” and ultimately democracy. Such an ideological and political pursuit culminated in the theory of literature and art on the basis of the Three Principles of the People since the 1940s. The idea was represented in two articles: The Policy of Literature and Art That We Need (1942) and The Theory of Literature and Art Based on the Three Principles of the People (1953). In the latter of the works cited above, Zhang Daofan introduced a theory of creation called “A Synthesis of Realism,” which has its basis in the concept “Realism of the Three Principles of the People.” With the aforesaid theory of creation, Zhang attempted to put a halt to the realist movement in the Taiwanese literature and art circle and foster them into a group more acquiescent to the ideology and system of the state.