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Automated design of large structures requires efficient and accurate optimization algorithms because of a large number of design variables and design constraints. The objective of this study is to examine the characteristics of the Kreisselmeier -Steinhauser envelope function and to investigate va tidily of accumulating constraint functions into a small number of constraint functions or even into a single constraint function. The commercial package DOT is adopted as a local optimizer. The optimum results using the envelope function are compared with those of the conventional method for a number of numerical examples and the differences between them are shown to be negligible.
Static performance was compared for the triangular plate elements through some numerical experiments. Four Kirchhoff elements and six Mindlin elements were selected for the comparison. Numerical tests were executed for the problems of rectangular plates with regular and distorted meshes, rhombic plates, circular plates and cantilever plates. Among the Kirchhoff 9 DOF elements, the discrete Kirchhoff theory element was the best. Element distortion and the aspect ratio were shown to have negligible effects on the displacement behaviour. The Specht's element resulted in better results than the Bergan's but it was sensitive to the aspect ratio. The element based on the hybrid stress method also resulted in good results but it assumed to be less reliable. Among the linear Mindlin elements, the discrete shear triangle was the best in view of reliability, accuracy and convergence. Since the thin plate behaviour of it was as good as the DKT element, it can be used effectively in the finite element code regardless of the thickness. As a quadratic Mindlin element, the MITC7 element resulted in best results in almost all cases considered. The results were at least as good as those of doubly refined meshes of linear elements.
본 연구에서는 그래프 이론에 기초한 이단계 번호 부여 방법에 목표밴드폭을 도입하여 계산시간이 짧으면서도 효율적으로 번호를 부여할 수 있는 방법을 제안하고 자 한다. A new bandwidth reduction algorithm is developed by combining the two-step approach and the frontal ordering scheme. In the two-step approach, finite elements are numbered first, followed by nodal numbering based on the graph theory. The concept of wave front is incorporated into it to control the cardinality of the set of adjacent nodes and the bandwidth to be achieved. They are controlled systematically by rational selection of next candidates with the purpose of getting the smaller bandwidth efficiently. Eighteen meshes are renumbered and the results are compared with those of well-known algorithms. The results demonstrate the efficiency and the reliability of the proposed algorithm.
본 논문에서는 접촉문제를 보다 정교하게 수식화 함으로써 효율적인 볼 압입 시험 시뮬레이션 방법을 제시하고 이를 실제에 적용하여 방법의 유용성을 보이고자 한다. 아울러 실험을 병행하여 결과를 비교함으로써 해석결과의 신뢰성을 검토한다. Computation of the elasto-plastic solution of ball indentation was carried out by the quadratic programming method. The problem was formulated as an elasto-plastic contact problem under the assumption of small displacement and small deformation and then transformed into a minimization problem. Finite element approximation resulted in a quadratic programming problem. Numerical and experimental study were done with aluminium Al 2024-T351 and commercially pure copper. The computed load-displacement curves were in good agrement with those obtained from experiments. Tabor's relationship for representative strains was also examined. Stress distributions were found to resemble closely those results available in the literature.