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          Relation between Inferior Vena Cava Collapsibility and Central Venous Pressure

          이병찬,김정윤,홍윤식,최성혁,윤영훈,문성우,이성우 대한응급의학회 2015 大韓應急醫學會誌 Vol.26 No.1

          Purpose: For evaluation of volume status in the emergency department, central venous pressure (CVP) measurement is a standard practice. However, this is an invasive method. Measuring inferior vena cava (IVC) size through ultrasound is promising as a non-invasive method. However, few studies have been reported in Korea. Therefore this study measured IVC size and collapsibility in order to examine the clinical usefulness. Methods: In a prospective study setting, IVC size was measured with ultrasound for patients whose CVP was measured in the emergency department. IVC size of healthy applicants was measured. Results: The healthy group included 100 people: 68 men and 32 women. The average IVC size of men was 1.8±0.4 cm and that of women was 1.8±0.3 cm. For collapsibility, men were 0.28±0.14 and women were 0.23±0.14, thus there was no statistical difference in size and collapsibility between men and women. The patient group included 51 people, average age was 59.9±18.5, and 28 (54.9%) were men. This group showed a significant negative correlation between CVP and collapsibility. IVC Max was 1.7±0.5 cm, IVC Min was 1.2±0.5 cm, median collapsibility was 0.26 (0.15-0.38), mean lactate was 6.4±4.4 mmol/L, and median CVP was 10.0 (1.0-14.5) cmH2O. Conclusion: IVC collapsibility can be used as a reference measure, or even instead of CVP in certain cases.

        • KCI등재

          단군신화 교육의 전제와 방법적 제안

          이병찬 국제어문학회 2011 국제어문 Vol.53 No.-

          This paper aims to explore educational premises and ways in the education of Tangun mythology in answer to new demands of the times. Tangun mythology is an indispensible subject-matter of education not only to our grasping of ancestors' spiritual life and to our understanding of the essence and development of national literature, but also to our building new literature based on tradition and to our establishment of firm national sovereignty. The topics discussed are as follows. In the 2nd chapter I deal with the actual circumstances under which the materials regarding Tangun mythology are used and the ways they are understood. The circumstances are categorized into three divisions:textbooks for literature, teacher’s manuals, and traditional literature. In the 3rd chapter, the premises to proper education of Tangun mythology are proposed to teachers. Teachers have obligation to satisfy learners’ questions and for that purpose should establish their ideas of those premises regarding such subjects as 1)understanding of mythological materials 2)education of history 3)education of identity 4)nationalism of Tangun 5)Tangun religion 6)national language education 7)eduction of literature 8)creation of culture, etc. In the 4th chapter I propose that we should interpret concretely the Tangun mythology and find its modern significance as a living text. I put less emphasis on the presentation of specific methodologies than on the development of educational methods in consideration of using cultural contents such as storytelling. To do this I think we need to embody more positively on the educational spot such recreative and reconstructive activities as changes of contents, divisions or media. 본고는 단군신화의 교육에서 시대적 요구에 부응하는 교육적 전제들과 교육 방안을모색한 것이다. 단군신화는 우리 선인들의 정신생활을 파악하고, 민족문학의 전개와 정수를 이해하며, 전통을 바탕으로 새로운 문학을 건설하는 방향을 정하는 데 기여하는 동시에, 나아가 확고한 민족적 주체성을 갖게 하기 위해서도 반드시 필요한 교육의 제재이기 때문이다. 2장에서는 단군신화 자료의 실상과 이해를 다루었는데 크게 문학 교과서와 교사용지도서, 전승 자료의 실상으로 나누어서 각각의 현황을 살펴 교사들의 이해를 돕고자 하였다. 3장은 교사가 단군신화를 제대로 가르치기 위해서 교육적으로 전제해야 할 요소들을제시해 본 것이다. 교사는 학습자가 가질 수 있는 여러 가지 의문들을 풀어주어야 할 의무가 있고, 그를 위해 교사들은 우선적으로 1)신화자료의 이해, 2)역사교육, 3)정체성교육, 4)단군민족주의, 5)단군 신앙, 6)국어교육, 7)문학교육, 8)문화 창조 등과 관련한 교육적 전제들이 확립되어 있어야 함을 검토하였다. 4장에서는 단군신화의 교육 방법에 대한 제안으로서 단군신화가 지니는 현대적 의미를 해석하여 ‘살아있는 텍스트’로서 교육할 것을 제안하였다. 구체적인 방법론의 제시보다는 특히 문화콘텐츠(스토리텔링) 개발 자료로서의 활용을 고려한 교육 방법의 개발을역설하였다. 이를 위해서 내용 바꾸기, 갈래 바꾸기, 매체 바꾸기 등을 통한 작품의 재구성․재창작 활동을 교육 현장에서 보다 적극적으로 구현할 필요가 있다고 보았다.

        • KCI등재후보

          成海應과 申綽의 考證的 詩經學 硏究

          이병찬 한국한문학회 2002 韓國漢文學硏究 Vol.0 No.30

          성해옹과 신작은 우리나라의 고중적 시경학의 대표하는 인물이다. 그들의 방대한 저술은 매우 중요한 연구 가치가 있다.그럼에도 불구하고 근간의 연구는 그 자료들이 고증적 성격을 지니고 있음을 입증하는데 국한되었다. 본고는 여기서 한 걸음 더 나아가 두사람의 저술이 지니는 특성과 그 학문적 성향을 밝히기 위하여 성해응의 『逸詩辦』.『詩庫傅本識誤』와 신작의 『逸詩』.『詩經異文』이 서로 비슷한 성격을 지니고 있음에 주목하고 이들을 비교 분석하여 실제 그들의 학문적 성향이 저술에 어떻게 반영되었는가를 살펴보았다. 먼저 『逸詩辦』과 『逸詩』를 비교하여 보면 다음과 같은 특성을 지니고 있다. 자료 수집의 광범성 측면에서는 『逸詩』이『逸詩辦』을 압도한다.그러나 치밀한 고증과 분석에 있어서는 『逸詩辦』이 뛰어나며 『逸詩』의 문제점을 보완해주는 성격을 지니고 있기도 하다.따라서 이들 저술의 성과에 우열을 가리기는 어렵다. 그리고 이들의 저술을 분석하는 가운데 일시의 판정기준이 모호하고 신작이 구양수의 설을 거의 그대로 수용하였음에도 이를 명시하지 않은 것과 같은 문제점이 드러나기도 하였다. 그럼에도 불구하고 『逸詩辦』과 『逸詩』에서 일시의 전반적인 문제와 정황을 매우 잘 드러내며 서로의 문제점을 보완해주는 그 자료상의 가치를 확인 할 수 있다. 詩庫傅板本識誤』와『詩經異文』을 비교하여 보면 다음과 같은 특성을 지니고 있다. 신작은 기존에 이루어진 淸學의 성과를 수용하기보다는 그 스스호 직접 상고의 서적에서 異文을 수집하면서 『시경』의 원형을 재구성하고자 하였다. 그러나 성해웅은 『시경』의 원문이 아닌 주자 『시집전』관본의 오류를 연구하면서 淸學의 일정과 성과는 인정하고 일부는 그 나름대로늬 연구를 통하여 미진한 부분 특히 반절이나 음에 대하여 보완하는 모습을 보였다. 이와 같이 이루어진 서해웅과 신작 두 사람의 성과는 그 방식은 다르지만 『시경』원문을 다룬 부분에서는 동일한 결과를 도출하는 등 상당히 가치가 있는 작업이었으며, 그 학문적 성향의 차이를 보여주는 좋은 자료 이다. Sung, Haeung and Shin, Jack are figures that represent the txtual research of Shi Kyung Hak in Korea. Their extensive work deserves significant research. In spite of that, the research that has been done until now has been limited to proving the textual nature of their work. This paper realizes such limitation fo the previous research and looks at how their academic inclination was reflected in their work by comparing and analyzing both "Il Shi Byun" written by Sung, Haeung vs "Il Shi" by Shin, Jack and "ShijipJun panbon Jioh" by Sung, Haeung vs "Shi Kyung Yi Moon' by Shin, jack. First of all, regarding comparison between "Il Shi Byun" and "Il Shi", there are the following characteristics. One of the strengths of "Il Shi" is that it was written through collecting materials comprehensively, but its weakness is that it lacked close textual research of the materials. On the other hand, unlike "Il Shi", "Il Shi Byun" was not written through researching extensive materials, but it is much better than "Il Shi" in terms of detailed textual research and analysis in several parts of the work. Therefore, it is difficult to determine which one excels in terms of the accomplishment of the two works. Moreover, some problems were found in studying the two works. On problem is that although Shin, Jack almost accepted Ou-Yangxiu, he did not specify it in his work. It seems that this shows his inconsistency considering his academic tendency that he had not quoted theories coming up since tang-chao. Another problem is that both Sung, Haeung and Shin, Jack have a weakness in standards that they used in judging Il Shi (Omitted poems); however, it seems that this weakness is not a significant flaw that underminestheir accomplishment. Secon, "ShijipJun panbon Jioh" by Sung, "Haeung vs Shi Kyung Yi MOon" by Shin Jack are works that clearly show the differences of their acadmic tendency about textual research. Shin, jack tried to reorganize the original form of Shi Kyung by collecting Yi Moon(Materials that used letters that are different from ones used in current Shi Kyung) from ancient books and materialsrather than was interested in the accomplishment of Chng Hak. On the other hand, Sung Haeung accepted Chung Hak and studied problems related to errors in Shijip Junpanbon, which shows his critical ttitude along with hs acceptance of Chung Hak. As presented so far, they used different approachesin their research, which clearly shows their different academic tendency but produced identical results in some aspects. Above all, their works is significant accomplish -ment that deserves attention.

        • KCI등재후보
        • KCI등재

          슈퍼 2상 스테인리스강의 공식에 미치는 R상의 영향

          이병찬,오은지,강창룡,Lee, Byung-Chan,Oh, Eun-Ji,Kang, Chang-Yong 한국재료학회 2014 한국재료학회지 Vol.24 No.11

          In this study, we investigated the precipitation behavior of the R-phase precipitated at the initial stage of aging and its effect on the pitting corrosion of 25%Cr-7%Ni-4%Mo super duplex stainless steel. The R-phase in super duplex stainless steel was mainly precipitated at the interface of ferrite/austenite phases and inside of the ferrite phase during the initial stage of aging, and it was transformed into the ${\sigma}$-phase with an increase in aging time. The ferrite phase was decomposed into a new austenite phase and ${\sigma}$-phase. The R phase was an intermetallic compound, which represented a lower Ni and higher Mo than the matrix, and also had a higher Mo and Cr concentration than the ${\sigma}$ phase. With an increasing aging time, the pitting potential $E_p$ was increased slowly by the precipitation of the R-phase, and it was then steeply decreased by the precipitation of the ${\sigma}$-phase. The R-phase was decreased the pitting potential, but its effect was smaller than effect of ${\sigma}$-phase.

        • KCI등재

          25Cr-7Ni-2Mo-4W 슈퍼 2상 스테인리스강의 기계적 성질에 미치는 R상의 영향

          이병찬,강창룡,Lee, Byung-Chan,Kang, Chang-Yong 한국재료학회 2014 한국재료학회지 Vol.24 No.8

          In this study, we investigated the precipitation behavior of the R-phase precipitated at the initial stage of aging and its effects on the mechanical properties of 25%Cr-7%Ni-2%Mo-4%W super duplex stainless steel. The R-phase was mainly precipitated at the interface of ferrite/austenite phases and inside of the ferrite phase during the initial stage of aging. It was transformed into the ${\sigma}$-phase with an increase of the aging time. The ferrite phase was decomposed into a new austenite(${\gamma}_2$)phase and the ${\sigma}$-phase by an aging treatment. The R phase was an intermetallic compound showing higher molybdenum and tungsten concentrations than the matrix and also showed higher molybdenum and tungsten concentrations than the ${\sigma}$ phase. In the initial stage of aging, precipitation of the R-phase did not change the hardness, the strength and the elongation. The hardness and the strength increased upon a longer aging time, but the elongation rapidly decreased. These results show that the R-phase did not significantly affect the hardness and the strength, though it did influence the elongation.

        • KCI등재

          漢詩 聲律論과 『詩經』 樂譜의 相關性 硏究 -한국의 논의를 중심으로

          이병찬 어문연구학회 2009 어문연구 Vol.62 No.-

          『The Book of Songs』 in China was the lyrics of music. At the first time, there was no way to write music. Therefore, only 『The Book of Songs』(詩經) has remained until now and there is no music book. According to 『Annals of Zuo』 in 'the Spring and Autumn Period', it says that a person who named KyeCheol(季札) saw the music in JU nation. The music of JU nation is 『The book of Songs』(詩經). The person who has arranged the music of 『The Book of Songs』(詩經) was Confucius(孔子) in the first place. But no one knows how he arranged 『The book of Songs』. The music in 『The Book of Songs』 seems to be disappeared before JIN nation. Primarily, the music in 『The Book of Songs』 was used at Royal Court. Thus, kings of many generations tried to restore it. The first date of using 『The Book of Songs』 was surmised in the Tang Dynasty(唐代) after its restoration. The music on 『Fengya Shiershi Pu』(風雅十二時普) was written by Zhao Yan Su(趙彥肅) in Song Dynasty. JuJa(朱子) wrote down this music in 『Rites The Classic General solution(「儀禮經典通解」). In Korea, this music is published in Shiyuehuesheng(『詩樂和聲』) and Shiyuemiaoxie(『詩樂妙契』) which were written by Seo, MyongEung(徐命膺). He explained in detail about the mutual relation between 『The Book of Songs』 and music in these books. Also, Yun, ChunNyeon(尹春年) and Lee, HyeongSang(李衡祥) were interested in 『Rites The Classic General solution』(「儀禮經典通解」), and they concerned the mutual relation between poet and music. Yun, ChunNyeon(尹春年) explained the way of connection between poet and music. And Lee, HyeongSang(李衡祥) clarified the mutual relation between a music of 『The Book of Songs』 and a tone of the interface(界面調) in Korea. The records of Seo, MyongEung(徐命膺), Yun, ChunNyeon(尹春年), and Lee, HyeongSang(李衡祥) are very important materials to understand the relation between 『The Book of Songs』 and music. This research has classified the mutual relation between 『The Book of Songs』 and music with these materials. 『The Book of Songs』 in China was the lyrics of music. At the first time, there was no way to write music. Therefore, only 『The Book of Songs』(詩經) has remained until now and there is no music book. According to 『Annals of Zuo』 in 'the Spring and Autumn Period', it says that a person who named KyeCheol(季札) saw the music in JU nation. The music of JU nation is 『The book of Songs』(詩經). The person who has arranged the music of 『The Book of Songs』(詩經) was Confucius(孔子) in the first place. But no one knows how he arranged 『The book of Songs』. The music in 『The Book of Songs』 seems to be disappeared before JIN nation. Primarily, the music in 『The Book of Songs』 was used at Royal Court. Thus, kings of many generations tried to restore it. The first date of using 『The Book of Songs』 was surmised in the Tang Dynasty(唐代) after its restoration. The music on 『Fengya Shiershi Pu』(風雅十二時普) was written by Zhao Yan Su(趙彥肅) in Song Dynasty. JuJa(朱子) wrote down this music in 『Rites The Classic General solution(「儀禮經典通解」). In Korea, this music is published in Shiyuehuesheng(『詩樂和聲』) and Shiyuemiaoxie(『詩樂妙契』) which were written by Seo, MyongEung(徐命膺). He explained in detail about the mutual relation between 『The Book of Songs』 and music in these books. Also, Yun, ChunNyeon(尹春年) and Lee, HyeongSang(李衡祥) were interested in 『Rites The Classic General solution』(「儀禮經典通解」), and they concerned the mutual relation between poet and music. Yun, ChunNyeon(尹春年) explained the way of connection between poet and music. And Lee, HyeongSang(李衡祥) clarified the mutual relation between a music of 『The Book of Songs』 and a tone of the interface(界面調) in Korea. The records of Seo, MyongEung(徐命膺), Yun, ChunNyeon(尹春年), and Lee, HyeongSang(李衡祥) are very important materials to understand the relation between 『The Book of Songs』 and music. This research has classified the mutual relation between 『The Book of Songs』 and music with these materials.

        • KCI등재
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