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There is a growing importance of science learning based on the inquiry and the student’s experience of inquiry. Experiment with observation is one of the fundamental way of school inquiry and it also resembles the practice of scientists. This study explored the characteristics of the students’ description on the observation results and the conclusion drawing in the ‘observation of blood’ experiment in secondary school. Based on the method of qualitative case study, data from the students’ reports were collected and analyzed inductively. For better understanding of the data, we also analyzed the frequency of each category, too. Research findings show that students’ characteristics of description on their observation of the blood were categorized into three types; simple statement, observation statement, and observation and scientific reasoning. The characteristics of students’ conclusion drawing were also categorized into three types. They were simple conclusion, combination of observed data, and scientific reasoning based on the evidence. The most frequently occurred types were qualitative description of the observation and conclusions consisted with mere combination of the results. These findings suggest that there should be more scaffolds and educational efforts to enhance students’ inquiry practice specifically focused on the well balanced observation and scientific reasoning.
The purpose of the present study was to examine the seminiferous epithelium cycle of Bombina orientalis using a light microscope. The cycle was divided into a total of 10 stages, according to the morphological characteristics of the cells. The spermatogenetic cells included primary spermatogonia, secondary spermatogonia, primary spermatocytes, secondary spermatocytes, spermatid and sperm. At stageⅠ, the primary spermatogonia was located closer to basal lamina of the seminiferous tubule without spermatocyst formations. Especially at the stage Ⅱ, the secondary spermatogonia were located in the spermatocyst. The primary and secondary spermatocytes were found from stages Ⅲ to Ⅵ. The secondary spermatocytes were smaller in size than the primary spermatocytes, but they had thicker nucleoplasm and smaller nuclei. The round-shaped, early sperm cells were formed in stage Ⅶ, and further divided at stage Ⅷ to have more concentrated nucleoplasm before division to matured sperm cells. At stage Ⅹ, the matured sperm cells emerged from the spermatocyst. Considering the above results, this study presented the special characteristics in the generation and type of sperm formation. The germ cell formation occurred in various stages, like the perspectives of Franca et al (1999), ultimately, providing taxonomically useful information.
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Image recognition technologies are getting popular in big data ages. In this study, we suggest statistical testing procedures to improve classification rates of image pixels. Recently, Liao, Akritas (2007) suggested a classification of image pixels based on hypothesis testings which is a powerful nonparametric classification method. However, their method may misclassify many image pixels in the given image due to small p-values. So, Ghimire, Wang (2012) suggest new method for classification of image pixels using a distance to the mean in the case of very small p-values. But it also has a problem when variances of classes are different. Thus, we suggest methods for classification of image pixels based on simultaneous location-scale tests (Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Cramér-von Mises test, Lepage test, Cucconi test). We find that location-scale tests we suggest are more efficient than previous ones when two groups are heterogeneous. 이미지 인식기술은 빅데이터 시대를 맞이하여 활발하게 활용되고 있다. 본 연구에서는 새로운 이미지(image) 픽셀(pixel) 값의 정분류율을 높일 수 있는 통계적 분류방법에 대해 제안하고자 한다. 최근 Liao, Akritas은 통계적 가설검정 기반 이미지 픽셀 분류방법을 새롭게 제안하였으나, 그들이 제안한 방법은 p-값(p-value)이 너무 작을 경우 오분류율이 높다는 단점이 있다. 이 단점을 보완하기 위해 Ghimire, Wang은 p-값이 아주 작은 경우에 평균과의 거리를 이용하여 픽셀값을 분류하는 방법을 고안하였다. 그러나 기존의 방법보다는 오분류율이 줄었지만, 집단별 분산이 다를 경우 오분류율이 높다는 단점이 있다. 따라서 본 연구에서는 집단별 분산이 다를 경우, 위치모수(location parameter)와 척도모수(scale parameter)의 동시검정법을 이용한 가설검정기반 이미지픽셀 분류방법을 새롭게 제안하고자 한다. 동시검정법으로는 Kolmogorov-Smirnov 검정, Cramér- von Mises 검정, Lepage 검정, Cucconi 검정을 고려하였고, 기존의 방법보다 두 집단의 분산이 다른 경우 제안한 방법이 보다 효율적임을 확인하였다.
The diagnostic evaluation model for the smart factory operation system, established as a national standard (KS X 9001-3) in 2016, consists of 46 items in 10 categories. The level of smart factories has been quantitatively and qualitatively diagnosed based on KS for 49 companies in the manufacturing sector, and this paper analyzed the data of this diagnosis. It proposed the characteristics that could be based on the smart factory construction (specialization) project by industry, and the priority promotion and convergence improvement areas among the evaluation areas to improve the level of smart factories. This paper can be utilized in updating reference models by industry for the development of smart factories, improving the level diagnosis models of smart factories, establishing policies related to building smart factories, or establishing directions for improvement of companies. N