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This article examined the data of Korea and China which commented on Zhaobao(趙苞), and explored Yang, Tŭk-chung(梁得中)'s thought and contemporary meaning about Zhaobao(趙苞) story. Historical commentaries not only reconstruct the past traces of specific historical figures, but also influence the establishment of universal ideologies and judgments of the state of the nation. Therefore, in the field of pre-modern Korean literature studying the contemporary context of classical works, it is useful to find and interpret works of specific historical figures. In particular, Zhaobao(趙苞) is a person who has conflicted between loyalty(忠) and filial duty(孝). Reading Korea and China's comments on the action of Zhaobao(趙苞) is a way to see what values are important for each country, period, and author. Among them, Yang, Tŭk-chung(梁得中) has exchanged letters with Yoon, Dong-soo(尹東洙) many times and commented on Zhaobao(趙苞) story and criticized its comments. Yang, Tŭk-chung(梁得中) raised questions about the following phrases. First, when Zhaobao(趙苞) committed suicide, he said, “I could not save my mother, but I defend the country against the enemy(殺母以全義).” Second, Cheng Yi(程頤) said, “It should not surrender using the castle of the king to save his mother(以君城降而求生其母, 固不可).” Yang, Tŭk-chung(梁得中) thought that two phrases were evidences of confusion of human relationship. If the morality between parents and children is the most important of human relationship, there should be no doubt in the phrases referring to this value. The period which Yang, Tŭk-chung(梁得中) lived was a period when the conflict between Old Doctrine(老論) and Young Doctrine(少論) was sharply. In particular, Old Doctrine(老論) regarded great righteousness and clarification of names as the absolute principle, and formed the forces centering on local academy and memorial shrine. He criticized that the fundamental of human relationship was pushed to different values and he tried to overcome this evils. 이미진, 2019, 덕촌 양득중의 조포 고사 인식과 그 의미, 어문연구, 181 : 283~308 본고에서는 趙苞(?~178)를 논평한 韓·中 자료를 살핀 뒤, 이중에서 梁得中(1665~1742)의 조포 고사 인식과 그 당대적 의미를 고찰했다. 조포는 충과 효 사이에서 갈등하다 자결한 인물로, 그와 관련된 한·중 작가들의 논평을 읽다보면 국가별, 작가별로 당대 중요한 가치가 무엇이었는지 알 수 있다. 양득중은 尹東洙(1674~1739)와 여러 차례 서신을 교환하면서 조포 고사를 논평하고 程頤의 논평을 비판했다. 이를 통해 양득중은 부자간의 도리를 인륜의 근본으로 삼아야 한다고 강조했으며, 그 근본이 말단에 밀리게 된 이유는 대의명분을 절대 의리로 삼아 祠宇와 서원을 중심으로 세력을 형성해간 노론에게 있다고 보았다. 양득중은 이에 대해 여러 번 영조에게 상소를 올려 문제를 제기했었다. 즉, 양득중이 유독 조포와 정이의 단편적인 발언을 가지고 부자간의 도리를 주장했던 것은 인륜의 근본이 말단에 밀린 당대 현실을 비판하고 이를 극복하기 위해서였다는 것을 짐작할 수 있다.
Oxidative stress is critical for causing cardiac injuries during ischemia-reperfusion (IR), yet the molecular mechanism for this remains unclear. In the present study, we observe that hypoxia and reoxygenation, a component of ischemia, effectively induces apoptosis in the cardiac myocytes from neonatal rats and it concomitantly leads to induction of GADD153, an apoptosis- related gene. Furthermore, IR injury of rat heart showed a GADD153 overexpression in the ischemic area where the TUNEL reaction was positive. A downregulation of cardiac ankyrin repeat protein (CARP) was also observed in this ischemic area. Promoter deletion and reporter analysis revealed that hypoxia transcriptionally activates a GADD153 promoter through the AP-1 element in neonatal cardiomyocytes. Ectopic overexpression of GADD153 resulted in the downregulation of CARP expression. Accordingly, the induction of GADD153 mRNA were followed by the CARP down-regulation in an in vivo rat coronary ischemia/reperfusion injury model. These results suggest that GADD153 over-expression and the resulting downregulation of CARP may have causative roles in apoptotic cell death during cardiac IR injury.
Purpose: Aloe-emodin (AE), an ingredient of aloe, is known to exhibit anti-inflammatory activities. However, little is known about the underlying molecular mechanisms of its inflammatory modulatory activity in vitro. In the present study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory potential of AE using Pam3CSK4-stimulated macrophages. Methods: RAW 264.7 macrophages were treated with AE (0~20 mM) for 1 h, followed by treatment with Pam3CSK4 for 1 h. After incubation, mRNA expression levels of cytokines were measured. The effect of AE on TLR2-related molecules was also investigated in Pam3CSK4-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Results: AE attenuated Pam3CSK4-stimulated expression of proinflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Two concentrations of AE (10 μM and 20 μM) effectively reduced mRNA expression of TLR2 by 41.18% and 54.43%, respectively, compared to that in control cells (p < 0.05). AE also decreased nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation. Phosphorylation levels of ERK1/2, p38, and JNK were markedly reduced by 20 μM AE. In particular, AE decreased phosphorylation of ERK in a dose-dependent manner in Pam3CSK4-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Conclusion: Our data indicate that AE exerts its anti-inflammatory effect by suppressing TLR2-mediated activation of NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways in macrophages.
Purpose: According as the accessibility about drugs becomes various, the occurrence of drug intoxication is increasing. Since report that doxylamine causes rhabdomyolysis often, drug-induced rhabdomyolysis is one of the most important complications in patients with drug intoxication. Acute renal failure (ARF)'s availability is important to the management in rhabdomyolysis, but report about rhabdomyolysis or ARF occurrence for whole intoxicated drugs is lacking up to now. Methods: This research did to 61 patient who had rhabdomyolysis of drug intoxication. First, object patients were divided into two gruops: doxylamine-ingested (Group I) vs non-doxylamine ingested (Group II). And then we analyzed on the early patient's clinical events and laboratory data. We used ROC curve to recognize'the early clinical factors that could forecast ARF appearance among these patients in addition. Results: Almost rhabdomyolysis was happened by doxylamine in drug intoxication ($55.7\%$). However, as compared to group II, group I showed better clinical course, lesser ARF occurrence and hemodialysis requirement. In group II, time was longer in hospital reaching from intoxication, the ARF occurrence rate was higher ($52.6\%$). Analyzing the ROC curve to useful initial factors, they were creatinine, uric acid and interval time from ingestion to hospital. These cut-off values were 1.44 mg/dL, 6.8 mg/dL and 5 hrs. Sensitivity for ARF estimate was $100\%$, specificity $69-98\%$. Conclusion: Compared to group II, Doxylamine-ingested group showed good clinical course. Creatinine, uric acid, interval time from ingestion to hospital aided in ARF estimate in drug-induced rhabdomyolysis.