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In this study, we compared daily (diet, exercise, smoking, drinking et al.) and hair care habits and the condition of scalp and hair focusing Korean and American high school girls whose social background and culture were different from each other. Through this study we intended to provide practical and useful information on scalp and hair care for teenagers. Data were collected through a questionnaire survey of 118 Korean and 98 white American high school girls. We carried out t-test, frequency analysis, and one-way ANOVA for the data analysis. Korean high school girls showed more irregular daily habits than American girls and Korean girls also had less vegetables, fruits, and water in their diet than American girls. Both groups did not eat enough fish like anchovy, sea weed but they had much of instant food instead of real food. Korean high school girls exhibited more oily scalps and American girls had more normal scalps. Korean girls showed more damaged hair due to hot permanent wave, so their hair showed more hair break off and spilt ends. Korean high school girls worried about damaged hair, oily scalp, hair losss and no shine hair for their hair care. On the other hand American girls more worried about dandruff and hair break trouble due to thin hair. American high school girls showed more tied hair than Korean girls and they dried well their hair after shampooing. American high school girls used less hot curlers and hair dryer but they consumed more hair wax and hair spray goods than Korean girls did. Futhermore American high school girls used more hair treatment goods to have their hair shiny and glossy. However, American high school girls paid more attention to the instruction and caution note on the hair treatment goods after purchasing.
본 연구에서는 혐기성 소화에서 aeration이 수소생성에 미치는 영향에 대해 살펴보았다. 혐기성 소화슬러지를 0, 1, 3, 6, 12, 24 시간 동안 aeration 실시 후 glucose(20 g/ℓ)를 기질로 이용하여 batch test를 실시하였다. Aeration 시간이 길어질수록 메탄가스가 감소하고, 수소가스가 증가하였으며,6시간 동안 aeration을 실시한 반응조에서 가장 높은 수소 생성율(570 ㎖/ℓ)을 나타내었다. 연속운전의 경우 aerated reactor는 메탄가스의 생성 없이 수소가 지속적으로 발생하였으며, non-aerated reactor의 경우 낮은 pH와 짧은 HRT만으로는 메탄 생성균의 활성을 완전히 저해할 수 없었다. 그러나 미생물관점에서의 보 다 명확한 규명을 위해 향후 연구가 추가적으로 진행되어야 하며, 현장 적용성을 고려한 aeration 처리의 최적조건 도출도 이루어져야 할 것이다. This research investigated the effect of aeration pretreatment for anaerobic seed sludge on hydrogen production. Aeration time for anaerobic sludge was maintained at 0, 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 hours in batch tests. Two continuous anaerobic reactors (aerated and non-aerated) were also operated. All experiments were conducted at 35℃ using mineral salts-glucose (20 g/ℓ) medium. Methane production decreased with the increase in aeration time. Aeration for 6 hours was determined as an optimum from the amount of hydrogen produced. Hydrogen was steadily produced in the continuous reactor seeded with aerated sludge while no methane production was observed. However, small amount of hydrogen was produced in the non-aerated reactor for short period of time from the start even though short HRT (2 days) and low pH (5.5) were maintained.
의사소통에 어려움이 있는 중도 장애 아동들의 적극적인 수업참여를 위해서는 학습시간 중 보편적으로 사용되는 교사 주도의 질문 응답 방식과 같은 수업 중 의사소통 활동에 참여할 수 있는 기회가 보장될 필요가 있다. 본 연구는 일반초등학교 특수학급에 재학 중인 장애 학생 3명을 대상으로 그림상징 반응카드의 사용이 중도 지적장애 아동의 수업참여행동의 증가와 문제행동의 감소에 미치는 영향을 알아보고자 하였다. 연구는 대상자간 중다 간헐 기초선 설계를 이용하여 수업참여행동 및 문제행동의 정의, 기초선 측정, 학급대상 반응카드 사용훈련, 중재, 일반화, 유지의 단계로 실험을 실시하였다. 연구결과에서 그림상징 반응카드의 사용은 대상 학생들의 수업참여행동을 증가, 문제행동을 감소시키고 이와 같은 결과를 일반화, 유지시키는데 효과적인 것으로 나타났다. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of pictorial preprinted response cards on the task engagement and problem behavior of three elementary-aged students with disabilities. The current study occurred during a group activity in a resource room with three students with disabilities who had limited verbal abilities and low task engagement level. Multiple probe baseline design across subjects are used and the frequency of children`s response rate, task engagement and problem behavior rate is measured. During all conditions, the instructor asked 8 questions each session. In the baseline conditions, the teacher called on one student who raised his or her hand to answer the question while in the intervention conditions, students responded by showing one`s pictorial preprinted response cards. The results obtained from this study are as follows: Firstly, the pictorial preprinted response card intervention resulted in significant increase in task engagement for all three students, Secondly, the pictorial preprinted response card intervention in substantial reduction in problem behavior for all three students. Thirdly, the effect of the pictorial preprinted response card intervention was generalized in a different class activity. Lastly, the effect of the pictorial preprinted response card intervention was maintained after withdrawal of intervention. Results mentioned above indicated that the use of pictorial preprinted response card is beneficial method to be implemented in the class for including students with severe disabilities and encouraging their active participation.