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The expression of visual language for the formation has been very important for the moderns regardless of the west and the east. Because it has been existing for the human life. The design has spoken for the ideal of our time. The designer has been a scientist and artist, doing the role of a social reformer, achieving our perfection. The visual expression has been thought as that of the effect of the function, which is the communication of the conception throught the visual sense, and that of the perception and feeling of the form and he form the color. Our best should be done for the design improvement, from a small board on the Street to the outdoor advertisement and the exports packages, and from a bottle cup to a new city planning, for the realization of a better life and society. To solve the problem in this area, the subject of form and color and the perception has been examined. Now we are trying to experince the visual perception by arranging those esements in the space intentionally, by observing the nature and discovering of what elements the form of the object is composed. In 1919. Bauhaus was found in Germany. It exerted an innovating influence on the architecture creating new beauty of rationality and function in the industrial technology, on the arts and crafts, the commercial design, the photography, the typography and on the stage setting. A new idea is presented after considering how the symbolization and illustration as the visual formation has been applied in our society. The statement, is made briefly, on the optical pattern's new expression in the poster, the magazine, the catalogue cover, in the newspaper advertisement, the packing, and in wall deeoration of buildings, and on the poster's expression technique and the visual effect of the idea. The effect of beauty of spatial composition from the plane poster to the three dementional showwindow display was taken care of. Finally. we should study the wide range of the visual language for the formation demanded essentially according to the reformation of mind and maten'al, having a new understanding of the visual formation resulted from the change of human thought caused by social variation.
Schirmer test is one of the most used methods for the diagnosis of dry eye. We attempted to develop a tear level measurement tool to replace unreliable Schirmer test with inaccurate results. Absorbency tests for various absorbents were carried out. As a result, α cellulose pulp was selected as the absorbent. A tear level measurement tool in the form of a strip of α cellulose pulp adhered to a polyurethane was prepared. Usability evaluation of prepared tear level measurement tool was performed. As a result, it was confirmed that it has a significant correlation with SM tube developed oversea recently. In addition, it was judged to be useful as an alternative to the Schirmer test in terms of measurement time and accuracy. 건성안 진단에 있어서 가장 많이 사용되는 방법중 하나이나, 부정확한 결과로 신뢰도가 떨어지는 쉬르머 검사법을 대체할 수 있는 눈물양 측정 도구를 개발하고자 하였다. 이를 위해 다양한 흡수제에 대한 흡수성 시험을 통하여 선택한 알파 셀룰로즈 펄프를 흡수제로 하여, 이를 폴리우레탄에 접착한 스트립 형태의 눈물양 측정 도구를 제작하여 사용성 평가를 실시하였다. 그 결과 해외에서 최근에 개발된 눈물양 측정 도구인 Strip Meniscometry와 유의한 상관성을 갖는 것을 확인할 수 있었으며, 측정시간 및 측정의 정확성 측면에서 쉬르머 검사법의 대체 검사법으로 유효한 것으로 판단되었다.
항균지는 질병과 부패, 오염 등의 원인이 되는 세균 또는 곰광이의 생성 방지와 번식 억제 기능인 항균성을 종이에 부여한 것으로 일반종이와 다른 차별화 된 기능성 종이이다. 이러한 항균지는 경제 발전과 생활이 윤택해짐에 따라 높아져 가는 소비자들의 건강과 관련된 욕구를 충족시켜줄 수 있는 고부가가치 상품이다. 항균지는 일반종이에 항균성능을 지닌 여러 항균제를 도입함에 따라 그 항균성능이 발휘되기 때문에 사용하는 항균제와 종이와의 상호작용 및 특성에 의해 항균지의 성능과 물리적 성질이 좌우된다. 미생물에 대한 항균활성을 측정하는 방법으로 halo test 방법과 shaking flask 방법이 있는데, 항균제의 성질에 따라 한 가지 혹은 두 가지 방법을 모두 사용하여 항균활성을 측정하게 된다. Halo test 방법의 경우 정성적으로 항균활성의 여부를 판정하는 방법으로 시료 주변에 생성되는 clear zone의 직경으로 결정된다. Shaking flask 방법은 정량적으로 측정하는 방법으로 일정의 회전속도에서 일정시간동안 shaking 후에 균수를 측정하여 균감소율을 측정하여 항균활성의 여부를 판단한다. 지금까지 유기계 항균제가 대부분 사용되었으나 인체에 대한 안정성이 확인되지 않은 것이 많기 때문에 사용이 자제되고 있다. 이에 본 연구에서는 천연 추출물 등의 천연계 항균제를 한지에 적용하여 항균한지를 제조하고 항균활성 측정방법에 따라 항균성을 판단하였다.
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This study was undertaken to find out the bio-effects due to be a radiation fractionated exposure. The experimental animals were divided into the control group and the radiation exposure groups of 20cGy, 40cGy and 80cGy with 220 male Sprague-Dawley rats at 6 weeks old. The radiation exposure groups were fractionated exposed from each 20cGy, 40cGy and 80cGy for every 5 days. The chromosome aberrations, the frequency of SCE, the changes of body weight, hematological values and enzyme activities were investigated for the fractionating exposure times and the time after fractionated exposure. The results were summarized as follows 1. The body weight of the radiation exposure groups were significantly decreased compared with control group according to the increasing fractionated exposure times, and it was the lowest values at the immediately after the end of the fractionating exposed, but it was recovered with the level of control group at 3rd weeks gradually increased 1st week after fractionated exposure. 2. The values of WBC, RBC, Hb and Hct in the radiation exposure groups were significantly decreased than those the control group, but the values of GOT, GPT, ALP, and LDH in the radiation exposure groups were significantly increased than those of the control group. 3. The frequency of chromosomal aberration were increased according to the increasing fractionated exposure dose, and it showed the highest at 5th days after fractionated exposed. The types of chromosomal aberration were occurred such as a numerical abnormality, deletion, break and duplication, it was not recovered immediately and maintained high frequency than the control group. 4. The frequency of SCE were significantly increased according to the increasing fractionated exposure dose in 20cGy, 40cGy and 80cGy groups. But it was recovered the level of control group at 7th days after fractionated exposure. According to the above results, this study could confirm that the frequency of chromosomal aberration and SCE were increased with fractionated exposure dose, the other hand, the changes of body weight, hematological values and enzyme activity values were significantly affected according to the increasing fractionated exposure dose.
The purpose of this study is to verify the assessment of the risk index by the AHP method effective in the bridge construction. We compared that by the AHP method with the risk index by the accident analysis in the bridge construction. This method results in the useful tool deciding the assessment of the risk index according to work type in the bridge construction.