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Purpose: Most cell culture processes for viral vaccine production are mainly based on adherent cell culture systems using serum, which are associated with expensive and labor-intensive processes to produce large amounts of viral vaccine strains. In this study, we investigated whether Vero cells could be grown in serum-free and shaking suspension conditions. Furthermore, we assessed the ability of the Vero cell suspension culture system to produce adenovirus type 5 (Ad5), compared to that of the adhesive Vero cell culture system. Materials and Methods: We tested the feasibility of commercial serum-free media for Vero cell culture. For the adaptation of Vero cells in suspension culture, adhesive Vero cells were added in the early phase of shaking suspension culture, and 50 days after shaking suspension culture, suspension-adapted Vero cells were subcultured continuously. To assess the virus production ability of Vero cells in suspension, the cells were infected with Ad5-green fluorescent protein and evaluated based on their fluorescence intensity. Results: The Vero cells grown in OptiPRO serum-free medium showed no changes in morphology and growth rate, but MRC-5 and FRhk-4 cells showed morphological changes and decreased growth rate, respectively. The Vero cells were well adapted to the suspension culture system. The Vero cells in suspension showed a better Ad5 production ability than the adherent Vero cells. Conclusion: Vero cells can be grown in OptiPRO serum-free medium. Further, our suspension culture-adapted Vero cells may be suitable to produce viral vaccine strains due to their high ability to produce viruses such as Ad5.
Aqueous phase catalytic wet air oxidation of ammonia was studied over Ru/TiO2 catalyst in a batch reactor by changing the solution pH, concentration of catalyst in the solution, temperature, and reaction time. The oxidation reaction of ammonia over Ru/TiO2 catalyst was found to take place exclusively for the aqueous NH3 with a preferred mode in strong alkaline pH region. An oxidation reaction pathway was proposed as following: Oxidation of ammonia was initiated by the reaction of aqueous ammonia with catalytically activated oxygen. After undergoing further successive oxidation reactions with activated oxygen, ammonia was finally oxidized to a molecule of nitrous acid. Nitrous acid dissociates into a nitrite ion and a proton. The solution pH was decreased with the protons from the dissociation of HNO2 so that the solution concentration of NH4 + was increased. Molecular nitrogen as a final product was produced from the homogeneous aqueous phase reaction between ammonium ion and nitrous ion. Further reaction of nitrous ion with the activated oxygen led to the formation of nitrate ion as another final product.
a Cu-ZSM-5 catalyst with a quantified amount of the active Cu2+-dimers (Cu2+-O2-Cu2+), the kineticsof the catalytic NO decomposition to N2 and O2 was derived on the basis of the proposed reaction mechanism, and2 onto the Cu ion dimer sites were evaluated. It wasrevealed that the enthalpy of the adsorption of NO (H=34.1 kcal/mol) onto a reduced Cu+-dimer, as the initiatingstep of NO decomposition catalysis, was higher than that (H=27.8 kcal/mol) onto an oxidized Cu2+-dimer, or that(H=27.4 kcal/mol) of the dissociative adsorption of O2 onto the two reduced Cu+-dimers in neighbor. The stronginhibition effect of gas phase oxygen on the kinetic rate of NO decomposition at 400-600oC could be explained bythe thermodynamic predominance of the oxidized Cu2+-dimers against the active reduced Cu+-dimers on the catalysteven at high temperature and under the low partial pressure of oxygen. It was also found that the maximum catalyticactivity at temperatures around 50oC, which was comonly observed in the Cu-ZSM-5 catalyzed NO decomposi-tion reaction, was attributed to the relatively large enthalpy of NO adsorption onto the reduced Cu+-dimers as com-pared to that of the reaction activation energy (=19.5 kcal/mol), resulting in less favored NO adsorption at the highertemperatures than 500oC.