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Nuzi was not an important city in their time but a typical provincial town in Mesopotamia. However, the texts unearthed in Nuzi are the unique sources for the social and economic conditions of people in a given land and a short period of time, which shows the ordinary life in an ordinary town. By this ordinariness of Nuzi, we can be helped to see the dynamics of social and economic history of an ancient town in the Ancient Orient. Nuzi is known as a Hurrian society. According to the extant documents of Nuzi, Akkadian was the written language for Hurrian society, while Hurrian was used as the language of daily life. At Nuzi, various kinds of documents were found such as adoption contracts, sales documents, mortgage documents, letters, slavery documents, and lawsuit documents. Among the documents, there is no law code known to us, while their neighbor had them such as the Lipit-I?tar Lawcode, the Eshnunna Lawcode, the Code of Hammurabi, Middle Assyrian Laws, and the Hittite Laws. However, although there is no codification found at Nuzi, it is possible to understand their law system through the vast Nuzi documents, and here, it will be done by observing the cases of theft of animals which were one of important property in ancient times. Generally the texts relating to the theft in Nuzi appear in litigation texts which deal with the lawsuit in the court before the judges. Although we do not have the document which codifies the process of litigation, from the vast document dealing with lawsuits, it can be reconstructed fairly well. The typical court procedure in Nuzi is; (1) initiation of the lawsuit, (2) the evidence by witnesses, (3) securing the evidence by a religious action (or an ordeal), (4) decision, (5) imposition of penalties, (6) seals, (7) appendix. Also the penalties relating to animal larcenies can be summarized as follows: (1) In cases of stealing large animals such as oxen and horses, twofold restitution was imposed. (2) In cases of misappropriation of large animals, the culprit should restore the animals. (3) In cases of stealing small animals such as sheep and goats, the penalty was imposed twelve fold. (4) If the defendant failed to follow the order of the court, the penalty can be doubled. Based on the observations above, the laws of Nuzi relating to the theft are more generous than corresponding laws of their neighbors, e.g. the Code of Hammurabi, which frequently requires the death and, sometimes, mutilation of the thief. Considering idealistic and propagandistic features of the Assyrian Lawcodes, it will be more plausible that the cases of Nuzi show the realistic application of laws in the court of the Ancient Orient.
Persepolis, the newly-built capital of the Ancient Persian Empire, was the space which intermediated social relationships in the empire. While most other major cities of the empire had come into being spontaneously, this city was built as the capital of the vast empire. As a result, Persepolis was endowed with an imperial identity from the beginning. Former historical sources of Persia, which has existed since antiquity, have left two dominant impressions. Greek sources have offered a distorted image of Persia: that Persia rapidly declined and became corrupted after Cyrus the Great; this was caused by weak emperors, extravagance and enmity of the palace; and resulted in the failure of the empire management system. The other sources from Judah and Babylonia, however, sketched a different picture of Persia: that it generously acknowledged the culture and religion of conquered lands unlike its predecessors. The latter has been considered the key to understanding how Persia successfully built and managed the vastest empire in history. From the late nineteenth century, new sources from Persia itself have started to speak out, and Persepolis is one of them. Every place in Persepolis, especially the Apadana, expresses Persia-centric ideas which were developed from the former empires such as Assyria and Babylonia. Thus, from the representation shown in this Persian city, we can conclude that Persia continued the traditional cultural policy of Assyria and Babylonia and followed the road of the former Near Eastern Empires.
This article is intended to examine the issue of sharing love and happiness as a part of social salvation. This subject has been expressed in Exodus 22:21(20)-27(26) and in Young San's sermons and writings. It is the intention of this paper to search the grounds of loving and sharing in the above text through exegetical study. The reason why God gave laws to the Israelites is that He wanted them to enjoy their life in the covenant (Ps 19:7-11). The covenantal provisions regarding the weak of society in Exodus 22:21-27 are stipulations of sharing love and happiness for the Israelite community, which include both ethical and theological aspects by appealing to their consciousness and memories of the past. These covenantal provisions for the poor express the fundamental spirit of the Old Testament laws, showing God's concern that the welfare of the human being is the most important subject. They also serve as practical guidelines for the Israelites who became God's people by His salvation. Israelites experienced God's presence in observing these provisional laws. The kingdom of God that Young San has preached is not only for the future but also for the present time. Young San has made it clear that Christians can experience the presence of the kingdom of God here on the earth, which Jesus proclaimed and made possible through His death on the Cross. Young San's understanding of the kingdom of God is closely related with the Cross and the present life of the Christian, and he emphasizes the most important ones in the present life are loving and sharing. To Young San, they are the means of building God's kingdom on the earth and of walking with God. Therefore, ‘love and sharing' is more than an ethical issue; it is a theological action achieving God's will, through which social salvation and the community of God's people are being established. Love and sharing are an essential duty for Christians who have experienced God's salvation and are necessary behaviors for the building up of God's kingdom in the earth.