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      • KCI등재

        제주에 대한 재현의 폭력과 저항의 역학관계

        이도흠 ( Do Heum Lee ) 한국기호학회 2012 기호학연구 Vol.32 No.-

        There were three kinds of the vilolence of representation for peoples of Jeju island: the remotest place of exile, island of a red, a beautiful island of sightseeing without history. I applied the theory of dependent origination to the dynamic relation of violence. Since others is penetrating inside me and I am also penetrating inside others, separating me and others is just a delusion. Therefore, a human being is intrinsically ``inter-becoming``. A violence is doing between the strong and the weak, between a strain and a strength dynamically. There is a resistance where the violence is doing. The confucian power elite in Choseon dynasty represented Jeju island as the remotest place of exile. Practically, they had forbidden every peoples in Jeju Island to enter inland, and had exiled the man who the king hate extremely to this island. The discourses that Jeju island is a land of God and Goddess stood against the discourses of exile. However, the latter had the superiority over the former in the struggle of hegemony overwhelmingly. The ruling class in modernized Korea represented Jeju island as the land of reds for the purpose of covering up a truth of Jeju 4.3 resistance. They had massacred scores of thousands of the residents in Jeju island during Jeju 4.3 resistance. They had forbidden every peoples not only the residents in Jeju Island but also all Korean to express a word about Jeju 4.3 resistance. After democratization movement against military dictatorship, the discourses that Jeju 4.3 resistance is a massacre of the innocent people by government power stood up to the discourse of reds. Owed to the fall of military dictatorship by democratization movement, the former had the superiority over the latter in the struggle of hegemony. The capital, government, and the press represented Jeju island as a beautiful island of sightseeing without history. They erased history of Jeju island in the memory of Korean. They regarded Jeju island as the object of sightseeing. They are developing and exploiting people and resources in Jeju island. The discourses that described Jeju island as the field of history faced against the discourse of the land of sightseeing. However, because the latter is created and communicated by the capital and the press unlimitedly, so the former is inferior to the latter in the struggle of hegemony.

      • KCI등재
      • KCI등재
      • 화두와 선시의 화쟁기호학적 연구

        이도흠 ( Lee Do-heum ) 성철사상연구원 2001 백련불교논집 Vol.11 No.-

        Seon(Zen) Buddhism can not be answered or understood by the intellect. The texts of Seon are of a paradoxical nature and cannot be grasped by the reason. Therefore Seon Buddhism can only be understood through direct experience of the true mind out of which it originated. A koan and seon-poetry is a means to directly focus our natural, questioning mind to penetrate through the barriers of delusion and to awaken to our true nature. One must directly experience the truth out of which these koans and seon-poetry arisenot just dwell in theories and ideas. Of course if you try to study Buddhism it's not true Buddhism. However, in seon practice is there really nothing to get or achieve? With a methodology to understand easily it is very hard to become confused, go astray, or to work oneself into negative mind states or foot oneself that one has attained something. It is reason why I interpret the text of koan and seon-poetry by hwajaeng-semiotic theory. Hwajaeng-semiotic is the criticism theory that synthesize formalist poetics with Marxist sociology through Wonhyo's hwajaeng thought and semiotic methodology. Wonhyo(元曉, 617~686) is the greatest thinker in silla dynasty. He is the thinker of Hwajaeng(和諍, put together every oppositions). According to the principle of Hwajaeng, he had worked together the various learned schools of sino-Indian Buddhism toward the common goal of spiritual liberation. I selected Osho Zhaozhou(趙州從諗, 778~897)'s Take a cup of tea out of koans, and great zen master, Yefu(冶父道川, 1127~1130)'s the Psalm of Diamond Sutra out of seon-poetry. In case of 'Take a cup of tea', it means to “Let's walk along the way of awakening beyond intellectual capacities”, “There is tao in every day life”, “Buddha and mankind is not two”, “Let's go to the absolute clean world.” In the text of the Psalm of Diamond Sutra , fisherman means to zen master, Buddha, philosopher, etc. Fish means to tao, sign, Buddha's heart, mankind, object, etc. So this poem means to “There is Buddha-nature in the heart of mankind”, “It is impossible to awaken tao by sign”, “Everything is one in the Hwayen-world." The Buddha has no theories. Koan and seon-poetry cannot be understood and said and communicated by sign. It is true that Hwajaeng -semiotic approach to seon-text can open an easy way to the truth. Some meanings appeared through this work. Even though jumping high we can not reach to the space. But we can reach to the higher place by using the bamboo pole.

      • KCI우수등재

        근대성 논의에서 패러다임과 방법론의 혁신 문제

        이도흠(Lee Do-Heum) 국어국문학회 2009 국어국문학 Vol.- No.153

        I look new horizon beyond colonial modernity and national modernity. I reject the "binary constructions" of nationalist historical narratives that have produced such dichotomous interpretations of the period as "imperialist repression versus nationalist resistance" or "colonial development versus national development". Instead I propose a new paradigm and methodology which transfer from the paradigm of identity to that of difference, from single modernity to varieties of modernity. 'The modern as the real', 'the represented modern', 'the modern as the desire', 'the interpreted modern' is not the same. However, all the scholars who had researched into the modernity in Korea regarded them as the same. I solved the problem through the thought of difference and theory of varieties of modernity, and methodology of cultural studies. The Chos?n dynasty approached to the stage of germinal capitalist society in the 18-19th centuries. Its developments were due to both western influences and voluntary engagement. Not only elite group but also peoples contributed to capitalist development. The relation of commodity-money economy appeared between the socio-economic base and the people in the age. There were four types of man's attitudes in this economic system: a irrational moralist, a rational moneymaker, a irrational moneymaker, a rational moralist. While, a rational moneymaker seems to be gradually won in the hegemonic struggle against a irrational moralist, the capitalist development ensured its legitimacy. There was a clear transition in Chos?n Dynasty in the era of 18-19 centuries. Those transition are a variety of modernity that is different from the western modernization. Now, we can research the modernity in Chos?n Dynasty more exactly through the thought of difference and theory of varieties of modernity, and methodology of cultural studies.

      • KCI등재
      • 하이데거 시학의 실제: 시 텍스트에서 존재의 개시 및 은폐 문제

        이도흠 ( Lee Do-heum ) 한국하이데거학회 2007 존재론 연구 Vol.15 No.-

        낯설게하기, 텍스트와 맥락 관계, 은유와 환유 등 시학의 핵심개념과 시 텍스트의 실제 분석을 통해 하이데거가 제기한 존재의 개시 및 은폐 문제를 ‘구체적으로’ 해명해 보았다. 예술은 진리의 은폐와 탈은폐, 밝힘과 감춤, 드러남과 숨김 사이의 투쟁을 부추겨 은폐된 진리가 현성하도록 하는 탁월한 방식이다. 시작의 진리 정립은 낯설게 하기와 통한다. 형식주의 시학과 하이데거의 현상학적 미학은 대립하지만, ‘낯설게 하기’와 ‘존재의 탈은폐’는 사물의 숨겨진 진리를 드러낸다는 면에서 상통하는 부분이 있다. 시 작품에서 텍스트가 존재를 개시한다면, 맥락은 은폐를 한다. 시 텍스트가 진리를 지향한다면, 맥락은 그것에 구체성을 부여한다. 시 텍스트가 맥락을 넘어서서 숨겨진 진리를 열고 밝히려 한다면, 맥락은 이를 붙들어 울타리를 치고 진리를 닫고 숨긴다. 은유는 ‘근원에 대한 형이상학적 욕망’을 바탕으로 한 것이기에 사물에 숨겨진 존재의 본질을 유사성의 유추를 통하여 개시한다. 하지만 드러내는 순간 사물의 본질을 동일화하는 바람에 진리를 보편화하고 이상화하며 차이의 바탕이 되는 특수하고 구체적인 의미를 숨겨 버린다. 은유는 고유한 중심적인 말로부터 분리됨을 의미한다. 은유가 이상, 동일화, 전통, 보편성을 지향하는 것과 달리, 환유는 그를 허물어뜨리는 물질성이자 현실, 경험, 미래, 특수를 지향한다. 환유의 의미들은 현실의 맥락을 통해 드러나기에 우리는 환유를 통해 현실과 경험의 구체성을 회복한다. 반면에 환유는 부분을 전체로 일반화하는 오류를 범하여 진실을 왜곡한다. 이처럼 우리는 시작품을 통하여 사물의 숨겨진 본질에 다가가며 이미 그곳에 존재하는 사물의 진리와 만날 수 있다. 세계-내-존재로서 인간존재는 언어-내-존재이다. 인간 존재는 사유를 통하여 사물의 본질을 표명하는 언어로 존재를 이끌며, 이 언어의 도상에서 존재는 본질의 충만함에 이른다. What is the opening and concealing of being? I tried to explain this issue concretely in poetic text through poetic concept: defamiliarisation, text/context, metaphor/metonymy. Art is truth setting itself to work. In setting up a world and setting forth the earth, the work is an instigating of this strife. Art is the excellent way that truth is emerged from the essence of thing to instigate the strife between opening and concealing, lighting and hiding, arising and sheltering of being. Art, as the setting-into-work of truth, is poetry. The essence of poetry is the founding of truth. Although Heideggerian aesthetics and formalist poetics is opposed to each other, ‘defamiliarisation’ in poetry is a impeded form of the setting-into-work of truth. The world and earth are essentially different from one another and yet are never separated. In poetic work, text opens up being, but context closes it. Text search for truth, but context gives concreteness to it. Text, in resting upon the context, strives to surmount it. As self-opening it cannot endure anything closed. However, context, as sheltering and concealing, tends always to draw text into itself and keep it there. Metaphor is rooted from the desire to the origin. So, it opens up the concealing essence of being through analogy of likeliness. As soon as its truth is emerged from, metaphor identifies the essence of thing. It hides particular and concrete meaning which is rooted from difference. Eventually, metaphor means to the separating from the centered and original word. Metonymy is a matterness that breaks up the identity, ideal, tradition, and universality of metaphor. It is rooted from reality, experience, future, particularity and directs to them. Metonymic meaning is coming out through context of reality. So, we recovers concreteness of reality and experience. However, it makes fallacy of generalization, and distorts the truth. Therefore, in and through poetic work, we come near to the concealing essence of being, and should meet the truth that already existing there. Human being as being-in-the-world is a being in language. Human being brings being to language through thinking. On the underway to language, being reaches the fullness of essence.

      • KCI등재

        동아시아 문학에서 타자의 재현과 타자성의 구현

        이도흠 ( Lee Do Heum ) 한국언어문화학회(구 한양어문학회) 2020 한국언어문화 Vol.0 No.73

        필자는 한국, 중국, 일본 문학에서 타자로서 일본인과 한국인, 중국인을 재현한 양상과 타자성(alterity)를 도모한 것에 대해 박경리의 ≪토지≫, 모옌(莫言)의 ≪홍까오량가족≫, 오에 겐자부로의 ≪만엔 원년의 풋볼≫을 대상으로 분석하였다. 박경리가 ≪토지≫에 설정한 동일성은 ‘생명’이고 타자는 ‘반생명’이다. 작가는 생명성을 추구하는 한국문화를 예찬하고 반생명의 폭력을 추구하는 일본문화를 비판한다. 작품은 반생명의 근원인 인간의 폭력성, 죽임의 문화, 전쟁과 학살을 추구하는 권력과 집단에 맞서서, 조선인이든 일본인이든, 생명을 살리려는 이들의 숭고하고 장엄한 서사를 펼치고, 대신 이를 방해하는 조선인과 일본인을 타자화한다. 모옌의 ≪홍까오량가족≫에서 원초적 생명성과 대륙적 영웅성을 결합한 것이 동일성이고 타자는 이런 생명성과 영웅성을 말살하는 일본인과 이를 상실한 소시민으로서 중국인이다. 이 소설에서 작가는 주인공과 인물들의 무지하고 폭력적인 행위는 원초적 생명성을 지닌 대륙적인 영웅의 기개로 미화하며, ‘붉은 수수’의 은유로 비유한다. 반면에, 작가는 근대적 도시인들을 이를 상실한 소시민으로 묘사하고, ‘잡종 수수’의 은유로 비유하며, ‘종(種)의 퇴화’로 규정한다. 오에 겐자부로의 ≪만엔 원년의 풋볼≫에서 동일성은 일본, 골짜기, 전통문화, 고귀함, 공동체이다. 타자는 조선, 도시, 소비문화, 천박함, 개인주의 사회다. 주인공인 다카시는 이 타자화를 통하여 슈퍼마켓 천황과 조선인을 약탈하고 강간해도 좋은 대상으로 간주한다. 그가 자살하는 것도 죄책감이 아니라 자신의 행동에 대한 책임을 져서 실존을 완성하려는 것이다. 세 작가 모두에게서 아쉬운 점은 동일성을 해체하는 대대(待對)의 차이와 타자성이 전혀 나타나지 않는다는 점이다. 이에 앞으로 동아시아 문학에서 크게 네 가지가 필요하다. 첫째, 객관적으로 공정하게 현실을 재현한다. 둘째, 동일성을 해체하는 대대(待對)의 차이를 획득한다. 셋째, 서발턴과 호모 사케르의 입장에서 타자성을 획득하고 결을 거슬리는 읽기와 쓰기를 한다. 넷째, 호모 사케르가 스스로 눈부처-주체가 되어 목소리를 내고 저항한다. In Korean, Chinese, and Japanese literature, I analyzed three works, Kyung-ri Park’s Land, Moyan’s Red Sorghum, Oe Kenzaburo’s The Silent Cry, on the representation of Japanese, Korean, and Chinese as others, as well as promoting alterity. In Park’s Land, the identity is life, and the other is anti-life. She praises Korean culture that pursues vitality. However, she criticizes Japanese culture that pursues the violence of anti-life. The writer unfolds a sublime and epic narrative of those who are trying to save their lives, whether Koreans or Japanese, against human violence, a culture of killing, and powers and groups that pursue war and slaughter, which are the roots of anti-life. On the other hand, the writer otherizes the Koreans and Japanese who interfere with those. In Moyan’s Red Sorghum, identity is the combination of primitive vitality and continental heroism. However, the others are the Japanese who obliterate this vitality and heroism. The writer glorifies the ignorant and violent acts of the protagonists with continental heroism and primitive vitality. And he metaphors them as red sorghum. On the other hand, the writer describes modern city dwellers as petit-bourgeois who have lost them. And he metaphors them as hybrid sorghum, and defines them as degeneration of species. In Oe’s The Silent Cry, the identity is Japan, valley, traditional culture, nobility, and community. The other is Korea, city, consumption culture, frivolity, individualistic society. Takashi, the protagonist, regards the supermarket-emperor and Koreans as good targets to pillage and rape through this otherization. He commits suicide, not feeling guilty for the death of Koreans, but taking responsibility for his actions to complete his existence. What is regrettable for all three writers is that there are no differences of Daedae (待對) and alterity that dissolves identity. Therefore, four major things are needed in East Asian literature in the future. First, it represents reality objectively and fairly. Second, it acquires the differences of Daedae(待對) and alterity that dissolves identity. Third, from the standpoint of subaltern and homo sacer, they acquire alterity and read and write against the power-elite. Fourth, homo sacer becomes the subject of Buddha-in-other’s-pupil and speaks out and resists.

      • 지속가능발전의 장애요인에 대한 대안으로서 실천과 불교 생명학의 길

        이도흠(Do-Heum Lee) 전남대학교 종교문화연구소 2016 종교문화학보 Vol.13 No.-

        2015년 9월 27일 유엔총회는 지속가능발전목표(Sustainable Development Goals)를 합의하였다. 이에 지속가능한 발전의 장애요인을 에너지 문제, 기계론적 세계관, 성장신화로 나누어 분석하고 실천방안을 모색하며, 더 나아가 그 대안으로서 불교생명학이 지향할 점에 대해서 논하고자 한다. 탄소를 배출하는 주범인 에너지 문제의 대안은 재생에너지 개발과 욕망의 무한한 충족에 바탕을 둔 삶의 변화다. 불교는 욕망의 충족이 행복이 아니며 ‘나와 연기 관계에 있는 타자를 위한 욕망의 자발적 절제’에 이르러 마음의 평정상태에 이르는 것이 진정한 행복에 이르는 길이라 가르친다. 이런 삶으로 전환한다면, 우리는 에너지를 덜 사용하면서도 충족한 삶을 살 수 있다. 환경파기를 야기한 기계론적 세계관과 이항대립의 사유체계에 대해불교는 연기론을 바탕으로 생태론과 불살생의 생명관을 펼친다. 서양의 이항대립의 사상이 댐을 쌓아 물과 생명을 죽이는 원리를 이룬다면, 위천의 홍수를 막으면서도 물을 맑게 유지한 상림처럼, 화쟁의 불일불이 (不一不二)는 그 댐을 부수고 숲을 조성하고 물길을 넓혀서 물이 흐르며 자연정화를 하면서 모든 생명을 품게 하는 원리이다. 이제 연기론적 패러다임으로 전환하여 지혜의 눈으로 온생명을 바라 보고 타자를 배려하여 욕망을 자발적으로 절제하면서 죽어가는 생명에 대해 자비행을 실천하여야 하고, 사회체제 또한 그것이 활발하게 이뤄지는 체제로 전환하여야 한다. 앞으로 불교 생명학은 이런 방향에서 생명의 문제를 올바로 보고 사유하고 실천하는 지평을 열어야 할 것이다. I will categorize obstructive factors to sustainable development into energy problems, mechanistic paradigm, the myth of growth to examine Buddhist praxis and Life-study as Countermeasures against them. We can reach ‘voluntary moderation of desires for others’ that are in relationships of dependent origination with us, and pursue the state of composure, and can reach the true and long-lasting happiness as a result. If we change our lives into those to reach composure through voluntary moderation of desires, we can live satisfactory lives while using less energy. One of factors that brought about global environmental crises is the mechanical paradigm. On the contrary, Buddhism develops the ecology and the life view not to kill on the basis of the doctrine of dependent origination. At the moment of realizing this wisdom, we realize that we should coexist with all lives and substances that are in relationships of dependent origination with us. The ideology that advocated and implemented this rapid development is the myth of perpetual growth. However, Buddhism combines common karma and the middle way to deconstruct the myth of growth and present slow and leisurely life with the wisdom of contentment with less or little gain. Now, we have no more room in the earth. If we do not shift the paradigm, and do not break up the capital system or do not change the states into ‘a righteous and peaceful ecological welfare states’, and do not promote sustainable development and life-study, and do not take part in this movement, we may live in dystopia in the 22nd century.

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